Glossary Petroleum

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Glossary Petroleum This glossary includes many of the common words and phrases used by the natural gas industry. Volume Abbreviations Natural Gas CF: One cubic foot of natural gas MCF: One thousand cubic feet of natural gas MMCF: One million cubic feet of natural gas BCF: One billion cubic feet of natural gas TCF: One trillion cubic feet of natural gas MMCFD: Millions of cubic feet of gas per day Energy Equivalents BOE: Barrel of oil equivalent (one barrel of oil = 6,000 cubic feet of natural g
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    Glossary Petroleum  This glossary includes many of the common words and phrases used by the natural gasindustry. Volume Abbreviations Natural Gas CF: One cubic foot of natural gasMCF: One thousand cubic feet of natural gasMMCF: One million cubic feet of natural gasBCF: One billion cubic feet of natural gas TCF: One trillion cubic feet of natural gasMMCFD: Millions of cubic feet of gas per day Energy Equivalents BOE: Barrel of oil equivalent (one barrel of oil = 6,000 cubic feet of natural gas)MBOE: One thousand barrels of oil equivalentMMBOE: One million barrels of oil equivalent Definition of TermsCoalbed methane (CBM) : Natural gas extracted from coal beds. Conventional natural gas : The bulk of the United States' current gas productioncomes from what is termed conventional gas reservoirs, which are typically undergroundsandstone or carbonate formations with moderate to high permeability.Department of Energy (DOE): A United States cabinet-level federal agency responsiblefor managing national energy policy, nuclear power, nuclear weapons programs and thenational energy research labs. Directional drilling : The application of special tools and techniques to drill a wellboreat a predetermined angle. Horizontal drilling is a form of directional drilling where thewellbore is ultimately drilled at +/- 90 degrees to the vertical direction. Dry gas : Also called consumer-grade natural gas, dry gas is almost pure methane andoccurs in the absence of condensate or liquid hydrocarbons or by processing natural gasto remove liquid hydrocarbons and impurities.Energy Information Administration (EIA): An agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. EIA provides energy data, forecasts and analyses. Field: A geographical area in which a number of oil or gas wells produce from acontinuous reservoir. A field may refer to surface area only or to underground productiveformations.  Flowback fluids : The fluids flowed back or recovered from a well that were injectedinto the reservoir and associated with a treatment, such as hydraulic fracturing. Freshwater aquifers : An underground geological formation or group of formations,containing freshwater. Horizontal drilling : Horizontal drilling starts with a vertical well that turns horizontalwithin the reservoir formation in order to contact more of the most productive rock. These horizontal laterals can be more than a mile long; the longer the exposure length,the more oil and natural gas is drained, and the faster it can flow. More oil and naturalgas can be produced with fewer wells and less surface disturbance using horizontaldrilling techniques. Horizontal drilling technology is appropriate for many, but not all,developments. Hydraulic fracturing : Hydraulic fracturing is an essential completion technique thatfacilitates production of oil and natural gas otherwise trapped in low-permeabilityreservoir rocks. The process involves pumping fluid through the wellbore therebyexerting pressure at the target depth creating small cracks, or fractures in the rock thatenable hydrocarbons to flow to the wellbore. Hydrocarbons: Any organic compound containing only hydrogen and carbon.Hydrocarbons are one of the Earth's most important energy resources. The predominantuse of hydrocarbons is as a combustible fuel source. Crude oil, natural gas and coal areprincipally made up of hydrocarbons. Kickoff point (KOP): The depth in a directional well where the curve begins from thebottom of the vertical portion of a well. Liquefied natural gas: Liquefying natural gas reduces the fuel's volume by 600 times,enabling it to be shipped economically from distant producing areas to markets.Converting natural gas to LNG (liquefied natural gas) is accomplished by refrigeratingnatural gas to -260° F. Methane : The principal component of natural gas; the simplest hydrocarbon moleculecontaining one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. Methane is a greenhouse gas andhas a much shorter lifetime in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide. Natural gas : A naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon gasesfound in porous rock formations. Its principal component is methane. Natural gas liquids (NGLs) : A general term for liquid products separated from naturalgas in a gas processing plant. NGLs include ethane, propane, butane and naturalgasoline. Permeability: Measurement of the ability of a fluid (natural gas, oil or water) to flowthrough a rock or other porous material. Play: An area in which hydrocarbon accumulations or prospects of a given type occur.For example, the shale gas plays in North America include the Barnett, Eagle Ford,Fayetteville, Haynesville, Marcellus and Woodford, among many others. Outside NorthAmerica, shale gas potential is being pursued in many parts of Europe, Africa, Asia andSouth America.  Porosity: The volume of space within rock that might contain oil and gas (like theamount of water a sponge can hold); the open or void space within rock, usuallyexpressed as a percentage of the total rock volume. Thus porosity measures thecapacity of the rock to hold natural gas, crude oil or water. Possible reserves : The high-side estimate of resources profitable to produce withcurrent technologies; less technical work has been done to explore and evaluate thesereserves, therefore there is a high degree of uncertainty in this estimate. Probable reserves : The midpoint estimate of resources profitable to produce withcurrent technologies; more technical work has been done than so that there is 50percent confidence that reserves could be above or below this figure. Produced water : A term used to describe water produced from a wellbore along withoil and natural gas (excluding hydraulic fracturing or other treatment fluids). Thecharacteristics of produced water vary by region. In general, small amounts of water areproduced from shale formations because of the low relative permeability of the shaleformation and the higher mobility of natural gas. Proppant: Specifically sized particles mixed with fracturing fluids used in hydraulicfracturing treatments to hold narrow fractures open (usually fractions of an inch inwidth). In addition to naturally occurring sand grains, man-made or specially engineeredproppants may also be used. Proppant materials are carefully sorted for size and shapeto provide an efficient pathway for production of hydrocarbons from reservoirs to thewellbore. Proven reserves : Reserves that can be produced with current technologies; significantexploration and development work gives a 90 percent confidence these reserves arerecoverable. Reserves: Resources profitable to produce with current technologies; due to theuncertainty in estimates of subsurface resources, companies use the terms possible,probable and proven to describe their confidence in the quantity of reserves that can beproduced profitably. Resources: That which can be recovered with current technologies but may or may notbe profitable to produce (excludes methane/natural gas hydrates that may berecoverable in the future with technical advancements) estimated to exist in naturallyoccurring accumulations. A portion of the resources may be estimated to be recoverable,and another portion may be considered to be unrecoverable. Resources include bothdiscovered and undiscovered accumulations. Shale gas: Shale is a very fine-grained sedimentary rock that is easily broken into thin,parallel layers. Shale rock formations can contain a large amount of natural gas, but thisgas is not necessarily mobile. Sour gas : Natural gas that contains significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide, whichmust be removed for safety, to improve burning quality and to reduce emissions of sulfurdioxide when burned. Sweet gas : Natural gas that contains little hydrogen sulfide. Tight gas : Natural gas produced from relatively impermeable rock. Found insedimentary layers of rock that are cemented together so tightly that it hinders  extraction. Getting tight gas out usually requires enhanced technology applications likehydraulic fracturing. The term is generally used for reservoirs other than shales. Ultimate potential : An estimate of recoverable reserves that will have been producedby the time all exploration and development activity is completed; includes production-to-date, remaining reserves, development of existing pools and new discoveries. Unconventional natural gas resources : Unconventional natural gas deposits includecoalbed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrates. These deposits are difficult tocharacterize but in general are often lower in resource concentration, more dispersedover large areas, and require well stimulation or some other extraction or conversiontechnology. Undiscovered recoverable resources : Those resources estimated to be recoverablefrom accumulations believed to exist based on geological and geophysical evidence butnot yet verified by drilling, testing or production. Wet gas : Produced gas that contains natural gas liquids. Wet gas contains methane inaddition to other hydrocarbons, such as ethane, propane and butane. Wet gas may alsocontain water and other impurities
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