Guideline for Seismic Vulnerability Reduction in the Urban Environment

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EDITOR: A. PLUMIER Guidelines for Seismic Vulnerability Reduction in the Urban Environment IUSS Press Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori di Pavia L E S S L O S S R e p o r t - 2 0 0 7 / 0 4 Risk Mitigation for Earthquakes and Landslides LESSLOSS Report - 2007/04 G u i d e l i n e s f o r S e i s m i c V u l n e r a b i l i t y R e d u c t i o n i n t h e U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t This Report presents a series of developments which aim at the reductio
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  E DITOR  : A. P LUMIER  Guidelines for Seismic  Vulnerability Reduction in the Urban Environment IUSS Press Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori di Pavia L E  S  S L  O S  S R  e p or t  - 2  0  0 7  /  0 4  Risk Mitigation for Earthquakes and LandslidesLESSLOSS Report- 2007/04  G  ui   d  el   i  n e s f   or  S  ei   s mi   c V  ul   n er  a  b i  l   i   t   yR  e d  u c  t  i   oni  n t  h  e Ur  b  a nE nv i  r  onm en t    This Report presents a series ofdevelopments which aim at thereduction ofthe seismic vulnerability ofbuildings andinfrastructures,focusing on practical applications through theintroduction ofcase studies.The first case study concerns a rapidscreening technique to evaluate buildings on an urban scale in orderto identify the need for retrofitting,followed by a description of conventional retrofitting methods;the remaining case studiesconcentrate on new retrofitting techniques,which is the mainsubject ofthe present report.The application ofFibre ReinforcedPolymers (FRP) for the retrofit ofexisting structures is presentedby introducing a user friendly tool for analysis and design thatconsiders the contribution ofsteel rebars and FRP to resistance,supported by the presentation ofexperimental data on durability and fatigue;the effectiveness ofFRP solutions is demonstratedthrough the retrofit ofmasonry infills against in- and out-of-planedeformations.The use ofsteel dissipative devices to reduce the vulnerability ofprecast concrete frames and steel frames withconcentric bracings is then presented,followed by the displacementbased design ofa base isolation solution for the seismic upgrading ofhistorical buildings.Guidance for the mitigation ofhammering between buildings,including a design methodology for varioussituations is also presented.The report closes by describing adisplacement based methodology for the analysis ofundergroundstructures in soft soils. cyan_magenta_giallo_nero    LESSLOSS – RISK MITIGATION FOR EARTHQUAKES AND LANDSLIDES LESSLOSS Report No. 2007/04 Guidelines for Seismic Vulnerability Reduction in the Urban Environment Editor  André Plumier Reviewer Gian Michele Calvi  July, 2007     Nessuna parte di questa pubblicazione può essere riprodotta o trasmessa in qualsiasi forma o con qualsiasi mezzo elettronico, meccanico o altro senza l’autorizzazione scritta dei proprietari dei diritti e dell’editore.  No parts of this publication may be copied or transmitted in any shape or form, and by any type of electronic, mechanical or different means, without the prior written permission of the copyright holder and the publisher.  prodotto e distribuito da:  produced and distributed by: IUSS Press Via Ferrata 1 - 27100 Pavia, Italy Tel.: (+39) 0382.516911 - fax: (+39) 0382.529131 Email: info@iusspress.it - web: www.iusspress.it ISBN: 978-88-6198-008-2    FOREWORD Earthquake and landslide risk is a public safety issue that requires appropriate mitigation measures and means to protect citizens, property, infrastructure and the built cultural heritage. Mitigating this risk requires integrated and coordinated action that embraces a  wide range of organisations and disciplines. For this reason, the LESSLOSS Integrated Project, funded by the European Commission under the auspices of its Sixth Framework Programme, is formulated by a large number of European Centres of excellence in earthquake and geotechnical engineering integrating in the traditional fields of engineers and earth scientists some expertise of social scientists, economists, urban planners and information technologists.  The LESSLOSS project addresses natural disasters, risk and impact assessment, natural hazard monitoring, mapping and management strategies, improved disaster preparedness and mitigation, development of advanced methods for risk assessment, methods of appraising environmental quality and relevant pre-normative research.  A major objective of the project is to describe current best practice and advance knowledge in each area investigated. Thus, LESSLOSS has produced, under the coordination of the Joint Research Centre, a series of Technical reports addressed to technical and scientific communities, national, regional and local public administrations, design offices, and civil protection agencies with the following titles: Lessloss-2007/01: Landslides: Mapping, Monitoring, Modelling and Stabilization Lessloss-2007/02: European Manual for in-situ Assessment of Important Existing Structures Lessloss-2007/03: Innovative Anti-Seismic Systems Users Manual Lessloss-2007/04: Guidelines for Seismic Vulnerability Reduction in the Urban Environment Lessloss-2007/05: Guidelines for Displacement-based Design of Buildings and Bridges Lessloss-2007/06: Probabilistic Methods to Seismic Assessment of Existing Structures Lessloss-2007/07: Earthquake Disaster Scenario Predictions and Loss Modelling for Urban Areas Lessloss-2007/08: Prediction of Ground Motion and Loss Scenarios for Selected Infrastructure Systems in European Urban Environments  
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