IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events

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IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events Tables de Cotation de l IAAF pour les Epreuves Combinées EDITION 2001 (REPRINT 2016) IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events Tables de Cotation de
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IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events Tables de Cotation de l IAAF pour les Epreuves Combinées EDITION 2001 (REPRINT 2016) IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events Tables de Cotation de l'iaaf pour les Epreuves Combinées 2001 Edition Reprinted edition - June 2016 IAAF COUNCIL / LE CONSEIL DE L IAAF PRESIDENT Sebastian COE (GBR) SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT Sergey BUBKA (UKR) VICE PRESIDENTS Dahlan AL HAMAD (QAT) Hamad KALKABA MALBOUM (CMR) Alberto JUANTORENA DANGER (CUB) TREASURER José Maria ODRIOZOLA (ESP) INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS Roberto GESTA DE MELO (BRA), South America* Nawal EL MOUTAWAKEL (MAR) Abby HOFFMAN (CAN) Anna RICCARDI (ITA) Pauline DAVIS-THOMPSON (BAH) Geoff GARDNER (NFI), Oceania* Sylvia BARLAG (NED) Ahmad AL KAMALI (UAE) Frank FREDERICKS (NAM) Bernard AMSALEM (FRA) Zhaocai DU (CHN) Victor LOPEZ (PUR), NACAC* Stephanie HIGHTOWER (USA) Hiroshi YOKOKAWA (JPN) Antti PIHLAKOSKI (FIN) Mikhail BUTOV (RUS) Adille SUMARIWALLA (IND) Nawaf AL SAUD (KSA) Svein Arne HANSEN (NOR), Europe* David OKEYO (KEN), Africa* Karim IBRAHIM (MAS), Asia* *Area Group Representatives 2 CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIERES English French President s Message / Message du Président 4 25 A Brief History / Un Bref Historique 5 26 The Evolution of the Scoring Tables / Evolution des Tables de Cotation 9 31 IAAF Rule Outdoor / Règle 200 de l IAAF - Plein Air IAAF Rule Indoor / Règle 222 de l IAAF - Salle How to Use the Tables / Comment utiliser les Tables How to score / Comment noter Formulae / Formules OUTDOOR SCORING TABLES / TABLES DE COTATION EN PLEIN AIR Engl/Fr DECATHLON MEN / HOMMES 100 metres / 100 mètres & Manual timing / Chronométrage manuel 48 Long Jump / Saut en Longueur 52 Shot Put / Lancer du Poids 55 High Jump / Saut en Hauteur metres / 400 mètres & Manual timing / Chronométrage manuel metres Hurdles / 110 mètres Haies & Manual timing / Chronométrage manuel 69 Discus Throw / Lancer du Disque 75 Pole Vault / Saut à la Perche 81 Javelin Throw / Lancer du Javelot metres / 1500 mètres 90 PENTATHLON MEN / HOMMES 200 metres / 200 mètres & Manual timing / Chronométrage manuel 96 HEPTATHLON WOMEN / FEMMES 100m Hurdles/ 100 mètres Haies & Manual timing/chronométrage manuel 104 High Jump / Saut en Hauteur 110 Shot Put / Lancer du Poids metres / 200 mètres & Manual timing/chronométrage manuel 117 Long Jump / Saut en Longueur 124 Javelin Throw / Lancer du Javelot metres / 800 mètres 133 DECATHLON WOMEN / FEMMES 100 metres / 100 mètres & Manual timing/chronométrage manuel metres / 400 mètres & Manual timing/chronométrage manuel 143 Discus Throw / Lancer du Disque 150 Pole Vault / Saut à la Perche metres / 1500 mètres 158 INDOOR SCORING TABLES / TABLES DE COTATION EN SALLE HEPTATHLON MEN / HOMMES 60 metres / 60 mètres & Manual timing / Chronométrage manuel metres / 1000 mètres metres Hurdles / 60 mètres Haies & Manual timing / Chronométrage manuel 172 PENTATHLON WOMEN / FEMMES 60 metres Hurdles / 60 mètres Haies & Manual timing / Chronométrage manuel 176 3 President s Message I warmly welcome this reprinted edition of the IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events. Scoring tables which have a history in Athletics dating back even further than the IAAF s own creation in 1912 are an invaluable reference tool for all those who work in and closely follow our sport. Based upon mathematical principles they have been regularly adapted over the course of a century and more to meet the demands of our constantly changing sport, taking into account mankind s physical and athletic development. As far as possible these tables ensure that the specialist in one event cannot overcome performances in the other events. As such the best individual event performances in combined events can score roughly the same number of points. While these tables can never be a definitive measurement of the level of performance considering the differing opinions among the sports statisticians concerning their basis and method of construction, they do allow us to consistently rank combined events athletes in competition. Sebastian Coe IAAF President 4 A BRIEF HISTORY OF COMBINED EVENTS COMPETITIONS MEN'S PENTATHLON AND DECATHLON Men's combined events competitions have a very ancient tradition. A Pentathlon (consisting of long jump, discus throw, javelin throw, 192m sprint and wrestling) was introduced into the Classical Greek Olympic Games from about 700 BC. After the end of the ancient Olympic Games in 390 AD, there was a very long gap. The next reports of combined events competitions, come from the middle of the 19th century in England. For example, the Much Wenlock Olympics in 1851 included a Pentathlon with high jump, long jump, putting the 36lb shot, 880 yards and climbing a 55 foot rope. There are also reports from Germany about the same time of combined events including pole vault, a stone throw and long jump. Modern combined events competitions, as we now know them, probably started in America about 1880, scoring being carried out using a table prepared for the American Athletic Union. At first the Decathlon (the All Round event as it was then called) included 100 yards, shot put, high jump, 880 yards walk, 16lb hammer throw, pole vault, 120 yards hurdles 56lb weight throw, long jump and 1 mile run. The whole event was completed in a day! It proved so popular that the organisers of the 3rd Olympic Games in St. Louis in 1904 arranged for a Decathlon to take place in conjunction with the Games, though not as an official event. Similar experiments with Pentathlons and Decathlons were coming to the fore about this time throughout Scandinavia and in Germany. At the interim Olympic Games in Athens in 1906, Greece made an attempt to revive the classical Pentathlon with a standing long jump, ancient style discus throw, javelin throw, 192m sprint and wrestling, but combined events, for track and field only, had now progressed too far. The Decathlon, with its good balance of track, jumping and throwing events requiring both explosive and endurance qualities, was developing irresistibly. By 1910 Sweden, who were to stage the 5th Olympic Games in Stockholm in 1912, had decided to include a Pentathlon (long jump, javelin throw, 200m, discus throw and 1500m) as well as a two-day Decathlon (100m, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400m, 110m hurdles, discus throw, pole vault, javelin and 1500m). In fact, the Decathlon had to be extended to three days owing to the large number of entries, with the discus and 110m hurdles transposed. However, the original sequence of events was confirmed at the 1914 IAAF Congress and has remained unchanged to this day. The Pentathlon has also remained unchanged except for a change in the scoring 5 method in Until then, the scoring was based on the addition of the place number in each event; the lowest total winning. From 1928, the same tables and scoring system as for the Decathlon have been used: hence the inclusion of the 200m in the 1984 tables. After 1924, the Pentathlon was dropped from the Olympic Games, since the inclusion of two men's combined events was considered excessive. Nevertheless, the Pentathlon continues as an official IAAF event, in particular for one day meetings, in club competitions and as a team event. WOMEN'S PENTATHLON AND HEPTATHLON In contrast to the men, the pioneers of women's athletics had to labour against a great mass of prejudice. These basic difficulties were increased by problems in the international organisation of athletics. The USSR, which was one of the strongest nations in women's athletics, and especially combined events competitions, was not a member of the IAAF until after the World War. Even more serious, the IOC refused to admit women to the Olympic Games from the very beginning. Towards the end of the first World War, a French woman, Mme Alice Milliat, established a national women's federation. After an unsuccessful appeal to the IOC in 1919 to include women's athletics in the Olympic Games, she set up a rival organisation, the Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale (FSFI) in Whereas the IOC naturally saw it as a threat, the IAAF set up a committee on women's athletics in This led, finally, to a joint committee with the FSFI in 1926 to control women's athletics worldwide. The FSFI organised Women's World Championships, similar to the Olympic Games, in 1922, 1926, 1930 and This did not endear women's sports to the IOC but, after considerable pressure from the IAAF, the first women's athletics events (admittedly only 5) were added to the Olympic Games in 1928 in Amsterdam. There were six women's events in 1932 in Los Angeles, but again only 5 in 1936 in Berlin. It must be admitted that women's athletics never really took off in the Olympic Games until The IAAF amended its constitution in 1924 to include women's athletics and, in 1926, as noted above, established a joint women's athletics committee with the FSFI. In 1928, various women's athletic world records were accepted by the joint committee and recorded in the IAAF handbook. The IAAF became increasingly frustrated by the joint committee and finally decided, in 1936, to take over the exclusive control of women's athletics world-wide. Special rules for women were included in the 1937 handbook (but without any event rules or list of events), and the women's Pentathlon was included in the list of events qualifying for world records. At the Congress in Paris in 1938, a Pentathlon world record, set in 1934, was officially accepted. 6 At the IAAF Congress in Oslo in 1946, two special commissions were set up, one to prepare new rules for women's athletics, including the Pentathlon, and the other to study all questions of scoring tables both for women as well as men. At the 1948 Congress in London, the USSR finally became a Member, although they had competed in the 1946 European Championships. The women's commission called for the urgent preparation of official scoring tables to replace a number of different national scoring tables. Details of the further development of the women's scoring tables are given in the next section. With the introduction of the new women's scoring tables in 1954, the IAAF had established a structure for international Pentathlon competition, but it was not until 1964 that the IOC allowed the event to be included in the Olympic Games. Meanwhile, as the battles for women's international athletics raged, longestablished national federations, set up their own rules and scoring tables for women's combined events competitions. One of the effects of this was a whole range of different events, almost always Pentathlons, as shown by the following table: COMPETITION DAYS ORDER OF EVENTS Pentathlon 80mH 100mH SP JT DT HJ LJ 60m 100m 200m 800m 1924/ / / / / / / /76 1 or /80 1 or Octathlon: (One form only listed here) 1946/ Nonathlon: 1970/ Heptathlon: 1981/ As will be seen from this table, even after the IAAF had assumed complete control of women's athletics, there continued to be frequent changes in the events included in the Pentathlon, and in the order of the events. This arose partly from the fact that no consensus had been established before 1936 and, at least in part, from the impossibility of establishing a balanced test of skill and endurance over 5 events. This was shown up in the late 1960s and early 1970s in various countries, with trials of women's combined events competitions having 6, 7, 8 and 9 events. Finally, in 1981, the IAAF established the Heptathlon as the official combined events competition for women. Women now have a reasonably balanced competition which has now risen to the same standards as the men's Decathlon. DECATHLON The trend in the late 1990s was to study a further step of the combined events for Women and maybe the introduce a Decathlon for Women in the third millennium. In order to achieve this goal, the IAAF Technical Committee together with the Women's Committee decided in the year 2000 to create a Working Group consisting of several experts in that field. Athletes, coaches, meeting organisers and member federations have been consulted with the aim of studying the need of this new event. Based on their research and experience, the members of the Working Group and the Technical Committee recommended to add the women's decathlon in addition to the heptathlon. This proposal was supported by the IAAF Council in March and voted by the Congress in August Although it was envisaged to keep Men's and Women's decathlon identical, problems would appear when these two events should be organised at the same stadium at the same time. It was therefore proposed to keep the men's order of running events and inverse the order of field events between the two days. No deadline has been fixed yet for the introduction of Women's Decathlon into the World Championships programme. 8 THE EVOLUTION OF THE SCORING TABLES In order to understand the evolution of the scoring tables, it is helpful to have some idea of the different types of tables which have been involved. Fortunately, there are only three main types: linear, progressive and regressive. With a linear table, the increase in points scored for a unit increase in performance is the same from the bottom of the table to the top. In visual terms, the graph is a straight line. With a progressive table, the increase in points scored for a unit increase in performance gets larger as the performance improves. In visual terms, the graph is a rising curve, concave side upwards. In a regressive table, the increase in points scored for a unit of performance gets smaller as the performance improves. In visual terms, the graph is a rising curve, concave side downwards. Early Men's Scoring Tables All the early tables were linear, probably because they are easier to construct. In graphical terms, it is only necessary to decide two points on the graph - the top (national/world records etc) and the bottom (the time for walking the distance/an average of junior performances etc) and then draw a straight line through them. The most prominent of these early men's tables were: Date Country Type of Table At the Top of the Table Comments Points Reference Scored Point 1884 USA Linear 1000 World Records 1901 Denmark Linear 1000 National Records Revised Sweden Linear 1000 National Records The Malmö Tables 1909 Finland Linear 100 National Records 1911 Germany Linear 1000 World Records For the 1912 Olympic Games From 1911 onwards, the main interest for all international men's combined events competitions lies in the series of tables prepared initially for the Olympic Games and later for the IAAF. National federations and individual persons, however, continued to prepare new sets of tables some of which were eventually adopted by the IAAF. Others, such as the Portuguese Tables of 1949/1954/1962, acquired an excellent world reputation and some others served to develop the art and science of scoring tables. 9 1912 Olympic Scoring Tables Having, in 1910, decided to include the Decathlon in the Olympic Games of 1912, the Swedish Organising Committee set about preparing a new set of tables for international competition. The initial work, which began in February 1911, was based on the linear principle but there were many difficulties in achieving an acceptable set of tables. In May 1912, a progressive formula was briefly examined but time did not permit these ideas to be properly developed. In June 1912, the Organising Committee was forced to revert, with some amendments, to their original proposals for a set of linear tables which were used for the Decathlon in the 1912 Olympic Games and where a valid 1908 Olympic Record had a value of 1000 points. One feature of the 1912 tables (and also the 1920 tables) was the use of fractional points scores. The experts developing these tables found it necessary to extend the tables to more than two places of decimals in order that every possible performance in each event should have a unique score. For example, the javelin table looked like this: Distance m Points Score The dislike by ordinary athletes and coaches of such a complex scoring system is clear when reading reports of discussions. 1920 Olympic Scoring Tables With Europe pre-occupied with the first World War, America, in 1915, adjusted the 1912 tables by altering the 1000 points scores to correspond with the Olympic Records as they existed following the 1912 Games. These tables were formally accepted by IAAF in 1921 and were used in the Olympic Games in 1920, 1924, 1928 and 1932, and even during the first European Championships in Developments in the Theory of Scoring Tables From 1920, three concepts became prominent in the theory and development of scoring tables. These have, in varying degrees, influenced all subsequent tables. 1) The fact that each unit of improvement in an athlete's performance gets increasingly harder as the athlete approaches his ultimate. This can be expressed statistically as follows: the probability of any athlete achieving or exceeding a given performance rapidly gets less as the performance rises towards the record. The score for a performance can be derived as the inverse of that probability. The resulting scoring table is progressive but, applied simply, this leads to an exceedingly progressive scoring table, and the main challenge has been to control this excess. 10 2) The need to be able to compare the performance of an athlete in one event with that of another in a different event or, indeed, in a different individual sport. 3) The wish to have a really scientific basis for any scoring system. With the growing research into human physiology and sports science, it seemed possible that a basis could be found in physiological parameters, such as heart beat, breathing rate, oxygen uptake or oxygen depletion and so on. The interplay of these and other interests in the development of the scoring tables over the past 65 years is a fascinating study IAAF Scoring Tables At the end of the 1920's the Finnish Federation set to work on a new set of national scoring tables. An early decision was made to drop all fractional points, the score in each event to range from 0 to 1150 points. The aim of the new tables was that a performance in any event should score the same as an equally good performance in any other event. To this end, seven standard performances in each event (labelled A-G) were selected by experienced judgement. All the performances scoring 1000 points would only be reached rarely by combined events athletes. All the G performances would be reached occasionally by leading boys. The range of performances in each event between A and G was subdivided into 20 equal steps. The number of steps between the standard performance was divided A, 1, B, 3, C, 3, D, 3, E, 3, F, 7, G, and a progressive curve was employed such that the slope of A was twice that of G. The whole scheme clearly works directly for field events, but not track events using time as the performance figure. However, if the times are converted into average speeds for the race, these can be used equally as well as distances in developing a scoring table. The new scoring tables were calculated by J. Ohls from Finland in These tables were progressive and corresponded to the formula P = f (em), where P means the points, e is the base of natural logarithms and M corresponds to the performances. The tables were calculated for sprint events up to the hundredths and the performance were evaluated only by full points. A zero point value was allotted to average performances of pupils and the 1000 point value was near the then world records. The tables were calculated up to 1150 points The new scoring table was such a success when introduced in 1932 in Finland that it was adopted by the IAAF at its next Congress in The main difference consisted in the progressive character of the Finnish evaluation as against the linear evaluation of decathlons at the Olympic Games in 1936 and at the European Championshi
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