Language Curriculum Framework

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Rachel Ann L. Reyes 17, 2012 Master of Arts in Education Celerino Baclaan March Professor Language Curriculum Framework ã A curriculum is more than a list of topics to be conveyed by an educational programme, for which the more commonly accepted world is a ‘syllablus.’ A curriculum is first of all a policy statement about a piece of education, and secondly an indication as to the ways in which that policy is to be realized through a programme of action. It is the sum of all the activities, exp
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  Rachel Ann L. ReyesMarch17, 2012Master of Arts in Education ProfessorCelerino Baclaan Language Curriculum Framework  ã A curriculum is more than a list of topics to be conveyed by an educationalprogramme, for which the more commonly accepted world is a ‘syllablus.’ Acurriculum is first of all a policy statement about a piece of education, andsecondly an indication as to the ways in which that policy is to be realizedthrough a programme of action. It is the sum of all the activities, experiencesand learning opportunities for which an institution or a teacher takesresponsibility – either deliberately or by default (Coles, 2003). ã Is the planned and guided learning experiences and intended learningoutcomes formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge andexperiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous andwillful growth in personal social competence (Tanner, 1980). ã A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles andfeatures of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to criticalscrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice’ (Stenhouse, 1975). Curriculum Development  is a more comprehensive process than syllabus design. It includes theprocesses that are used to determine the needs of a group of learners, todevelop aims or objectives for a program to address those needs, to determinean appropriate syllabus, course structure, teaching methods, and materials,and to carry out an evaluation of the language program that results fromtheses processes (Richards, 2001). The Ideology of the Curriculum 1.Academic Rationalism The justification for the aims of curriculum stresses the intrinsicvalue of the subject matter and its role in developing the learner’sintellect, humanistic values, and rationality. The content matter of different subjects is viewed as the basis for a curriculum. Mastery of content is an end in itself rather than a means to solving social problemsor providing efficient means to achieve the goals of policy makers.  2.Social and Economic Efficiency This educational philosophy emphasizes the practical needs of learners and society and the role of an educational program in producinglearners who are economically productive. Bobbit (19” 18), one of thefounders of curriculum theory, advocated this view of the curriculum.Curriculum development was seen as based on scientific principles, itspractitioners were “educational engineers” whose job was to “discoverthe total range of habits, skills, abilities, forms of thoughts…etc., that itsembers need for the effective performance of their vocational labors.” Inlanguage teaching, this philosophy leads to an3.Learner-centerednessIn language teaching, this educational philosophy is leading to anemphasis on process rather than product, a focus on learning learnerdifferences, learner strategies and on learner self-direction andautonomy.4.Social Reconstructionism This curriculum perspective emphasizes the roles schools andlearners can and should play in addressing social injustices andinequality. Morris (1995) observes: The curriculum derived from thisperspective focuses on developing knowledge, skills and attitudes whichwould create a world where people care about each other, theenvironment, and the distribution of wealth. Tolerance, the acceptanceof diversity and peace would be encouraged. Social injustices andinequality would be central issues in the curriculum.5.Cultural Pluralism This philosophy argues that schools should prepare students toparticipate in several different cultures and not merely the culture of thedominant social and economic group. Cultural pluralism seeks to redressracism, to raise the self-esteem of minority groups, and to help childrenappreciate the viewpoints of other cultures and religions (Phillips and Terry, 1999). General Curriculum Planning   Taba’s outline (1962) of the steps which a course designer must work throughto develop subject matter courses has become the foundation for many other writers’suggestions. ã Diagnosis of needs ã Formulation of objectives ã Selection of content ã Organization of content ã Selection of learning experiences ã Organization of learning experiences ã Determination of what to evaluate, and the means to evaluate
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