Parts of Speech Sentence

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Downloaded From: http://www.sscportal.in 12 Sentence Sentence Language is the major means by which we communicate and interact with others. When we speak or write, we use words. These words are generally used in groups e.g.: A bad workman quarrels with his tools. A group of words arrange din a manner which makes a complete sense is called a Sentence. Based on meaning and sense, the sentence can be classified as : 1. Declarative or assertive 2. Imperative 3. Interrogative 4. Exclamatory Part s
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  12 Sentence Language is the major means by which we communicate and interact with others. When we speak or write,we use words. These words are generally used in groups e.g.: A bad workman quarrels with his tools.A group of words arrange din a manner which makes a complete sense is called a Sentence. Based on meaningand sense, the sentence can be classified as :1.Declarative or assertive2.Imperative3.Interrogative4.Exclamatory Parts of Speech Words are classified into different kinds or groups called Parts of Speech according to their use and functionin a sentence. They are eight in number-Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction andInterjection. Noun The Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing. The word thing includes (i) all objects thatwe can see, touch, hear, smell or taste, and (ii) something we can think of but cannot perceive through our senses.There are five different kinds of noun.They are :1.Proper Noun2.Common Noun3.Collective Noun4.Material Noun5.Abstract Noun. Kinds of Noun The following chart will make you familiar with the different kinds of noun : NounNature of NounExamples Proper NounIt denotes a particular person, place or thing.Chander, Kolkata, India, the Ganges, the Gita, etc.Common NounIt is the name given to any andTable, glass, town, king, book, river, country, etc.every person or thing of the same class or kind.Collective NounIt denotes a group or collection ofArmy, class, host, jury, mob, crowd, team, parlia - similar individuals or things consideredment, committee, family, fleet etc.as one complete whole.Material NounIt denotes the matter or substance ofWood, clay, rubber, iron, silver, gold, cloth, etc.Abstract NounIt expresses quality, state or action.Truth, love, soul, mind, greatness, life, poverty,manhood, pleasure, pain, honesty, etc.   Sentence Downloaded From: http://www.sscportal.inDownloaded From: http://www.sscportal.in  Pronoun The repetition of a noun in a sentence or a set of sentences is really boring. So, Grammar prescribes thatinstead of repeating the noun, we may use a word (for that noun) called pronoun. This leads us to a precisedefinition of Pronoun.The Pronoun is a word that we use instead of a noun.Many people commit grammatical mistakes because they lack thorough knowledge regarding the use of pronouns.The following facts can be stated on the basis of the above definition:(a)A pronoun must itself be something equivalent to a noun.(b)As a rule, the pronoun should not be mentioned until the noun has been mentioned.(c)A pronoun must be of the same number, gender and person as the noun it stands for.Pronouns have numerous subclasses. Though there are several features that pronouns have in common withnouns, yet there are some features which distinguish them from nouns. They are as follows:(a)They do not admit determiners;(b)They often have an objective case;(c)They often have person distinction;(d)They often have overt gender contrast;(e)Singular and plural forms are often not morphologically related. Kinds of Prnouns I.Personal Pronouns : A pronoun which is used instead of the name of a person is known as a PersonalPronoun.  Exam ples I, my, mine, me, we, our, ours, us.(First Person)Thou, thine, thy, thee.You, your, yours. (Second Person)He, his, him, she, her, hers, it, its,they, their, theirs, them. (Third Person) II.Reflexive or Emphatic Pronouns : When self is added to my, your, him, her, it and selves to our, your,them, we get Compound Personal Pronouns. When the action done by the subject turns back (reflects) uponthe subject, ‘self’ is added to the pronoun and becomes a Reflexive or Emphatic pronoun.  Exam ples 1.I hurt myself 2.He hurt himself.3.They hurt themselves. III.Demonstrative Pronouns: The pronouns which are used to point out the objects which they refer to arecalled Demonstrative Pronouns.  Exam ples 1.This is a gift from my father.2.These are merely excuses.3.Mumbai mangoes are better than those of Bangalore.4.That is the fort of Allahabad. IV.Indefinite Pronouns : All pronouns which refer to persons or things in a general way and do not refer toany particular person or thing are called Indefinite Pronouns.  Exam ples 1.Somebody has stolen my watch.2.Few escaped unhurt.3.Did you ask anybody to come?4. Nobody was there to welcome her. Downloaded From: http://www.sscportal.inDownloaded From: http://www.sscportal.in  V.Distributive Pronouns: Each, either, neither are called Distributive Pronouns because they refer topersons or things-one at a time. For this reason, they are always singular and thus followed by the verb insingular.  Exam ples 1.Each of these men received a reward.2.Either of you can go.3.Neither of the accusations is true. VI.Relative Pronouns: A Relative Pronoun refers or relates to some noun going before, which is called itsAntecedent.  Exam ples 1.I met Hari who used to live here.2.I have found the pen which I had lost.3.Here is the book that you lent me. VII.Interrogative Pronouns: These pronouns are used to ask questions.  Exam ples 1.Whose book is this?2.What will all the neighbours say?3.What do you prefer, tea or coffee?  Note: Interrogative pronouns can also be used in asking indirect questions. Consider the following examples:1.I asked who was speaking.2.Tell me what you have done.3.Say which you would like best. A djective An Adjective is a word that qualifies or adds something to the meaning of a noun.1.Madan is a good boy.(Boy of what kind?)2.He gave me ten bananas.(How many bananas’?)3.We do not like that girl.(Which girl?)In sentence 1, good tells what kind of boy Madan is.In sentence 2, ten shows how many bananas he gave me.In sentence 3, that points out which girl is meant. Some Facts About Adjectives and their Uses Adjectives can be used in two ways-attributively and predicatively. When an adjective is placed just before the noun, itsuse is Attributive, but when it is used after the noun or pronoun, the use is called Predicative. Examples (i)This is a sweet mango.(Attributive)(ii)This mango is sweet.(Predicative)(iii)Fame is the perfume of heroic deeds.(Attributive)(iv)The judge declared him guilty.(Predicative)(v)It is a beautiful painting.(Attributive)(vi)The painting is beautiful.(Predicative)(vii)Sita is a pretty girl.(Attributive)(viii)My daughter is pretty.(Predicative)(ix)Each boy of the class was punished yesterday.(x)There were only two poets. Each poet recited his poem.(xi)Every man is expected to do his duty.(xii)He comes to me every day.(xiii)Every man in this world dies.(xiv)India wants peace in every corner ofthe world. Downloaded From: http://www.sscportal.inDownloaded From: http://www.sscportal.in  4.(a) Oral means by word of mouth.(b) Verbal means concerned with words.  Exam ples (i)He sent mean oral, message.(ii)There is not much verbal difference between the two statements.Oral is the opposite of written.5.(a) Either means one of the two or each of the two.(b) Neither is the negative of either.  Exam ples (i)You may buy either of these two chairs. (One of the two)(ii)Either book will do.(iii)There are shady trees on either side of the road. (Each)(iv)I can speak on either side.(v)He can write with either hand.(vi)I can speak on neither side.(vii)Neither of them could speak on the stage.(viii)He can write with neither hand.(ix)Neither of the two pens is costly.6.(a)Sick means slight indisposition.(b)Ill means unwell, indisposed.  Exam ples (i)I am feeling sick.(ii)He has been seriously ill for the past ten days.  Note:   Sick and ill both express the idea of being in bad health, affected with disease etc., but sick is morecommonly used than ill, which is somewhat formal (I am feeling sick. He is ill with the flu.)7.(a)Enough is used with both singular and plural number. It conveys the sense of sufficiency.  Exam ples (i)There is enough sugar in the pot.(ii)There are enough eggs in the basket. 8. (a)Only means alone of its or their kind; sole.(b)Nearest means close in distance, time or relation.It is the superlative of the adjective near.(c)Next expresses position. It means just before or after in time, space, degree or rank.  Exam ples (i)Sudha is the only daughter of her parents.(ii)The nearest shopping complex from our house is two kilometres away.(iii)How far is it to the next petrol pump?(iv)The State Bank of India is the nearest bank.(v)The next shop is mine. 9. (a)Later expresses late in time.(b)Latter means second in position or order.(c)Latest means most recent.(d)Last means final in position or order.  Note: Later or latter are comparative degrees of late and latest or last are superlative degrees of late.  Exam ples (i)The train arrived an hour later than the scheduled time.(ii)The latter position was better than the former.(iii)What is the latest news’?(iv)He was the first to come and last to go Downloaded From: http://www.sscportal.inDownloaded From: http://www.sscportal.in
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