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1 CHAPTER I Introduction Background of the Study A world without an existing communication system is a world of emptiness. Communication is one of the important elements of public participation because through communication every individual can express his thoughts and feelings to an idea or topic. Nowadays there are different types of communication media that an individual can utilize in sharing such information. One of the most popular and commonly used communication media is social networkin
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  1 CHAPTER IIntroductionBackground of the Study A world without an existing communication system is a world of emptiness.Communication is one of the important elements of public participation because throughcommunication every individual can express his thoughts and feelings to an idea or topic.Nowadays there are different types of communication media that an individual can utilizein sharing such information. One of the most popular and commonly usedcommunication media is social networking. Social networking is “ a social structure made up of indi viduals called nodeswhich are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such asfriendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationship or relationship of beliefs, knowledge or prestige” (scribd.com) . Social network is like anelectronic identification system that allows users to create profile describing them and toexchange public and private messages. It can be described as one of the useful inventionsof the century. Men of all ages are involved to this social trend due to its features thathelp individuals in such process of communication. The first official social networkingsite was Classmate.com which was founded in 1995, but now there are lots of sites thatcan be used for social networking like Facebook, Twitter, Plurk, Friendster, Multiply etc.with the rapid growth of people who used or have access to the internet, socialnetworking is a must for the internet community to stay in touch with each other.People have used the idea of social network closely over a century “to connote complex sets of relationships between members of social systems of all scales, from  2 interpersonal to international” (scribd.com). Social networking plays an important role to our daily lives. Most of the times, an individual utilizes social networking site as thepersons uses the World Wide Web. Social networking is made for the benefit of mankindbut some people take an advantage and use these social networking sites in making illegalacts for their own profit. This is the other side of social networking that is needed to beexposed to the public. Thus, this study used the theory of communicative action of JurgenHabermas to explain and to view the different implications of the social trend of thecentury which is social networking. Every communicative act has a corresponding effectto the public. The different participation of such individual in the social networking canbe affecting the real world. The cyber world and real world are two different entities butthese two can affect each other from the actions committed by individuals.Jurgen Habermas 1   , explains communicative action as “individual action designed to promote common understandings in a group and to promote cooperation, as opposed to strategic action designed simply to achieve one‟s personal goals” (william.edu). In a communicative action, the other side of social site can be viewed due to the fact that itpromotes not only personal goals but for the good of the society. Habermas theory of communicative action is composed of two main ideas that can be found in the twovolumes of the said b ook. The two volumes are titled “Reasons and Rationalization of theSociety” and “Lifeworld and Systems: a Critique of Functionalist Reason”. This study utilizes the concept of the Lifeworld as a guiding principle in giving the nature andimplication of social networking.The concept of lifeworld is a major subject of the theory of communicative actionand the relationship between lifeworld and communicative action is being highly  3 complementary. The term Lifeworld comes from philosophers Edmund Husserl 2 and waselaborated by Alfred Schutz 3 . But Jurgen Habermas has his own meaning of Lifeworld which means “the shared common understanding including values that develop through face to face contacts overtime in various social groups from families to communiti es” (people.ugalry). As time goes by, individuals create a lifeworld which manifests the samevalues or attitudes and they can also have the possibility to create a new Lifeworld whenthey share another same values or understanding. The Lifeworld carries all sorts of assumptions about who we are as a people and what value about ourselves. In addition to this, Habermas said that “the subject of lifeworld formed from none or less diffuse,always unproblematic, background convictions” (william.edu). The Lifewo rld is animportant source for investment and manifestation of social capital.This study aims to present the connection between social networking andHabermas concept of Lifeworld. Social networking can be used to measure social capitalwhile Lifeworld is a source for the investment of social capital. This also aims to presentthe other side of social networking which is said to be the implication and nature of socialnetworking. In social networking, individuals build different Lifeworld as they share suchinformation or feelings. One of the implications of social networking is the cybercrimesmade by the individuals that want to achieve their own personal goals from anotherindividual. The researcher is proving that Habermas concept of Lifeworld can view thenature and implication of social networking.  4 Theoretical Framework The widespread utilization of social networking as a form of communicationmedia greatly affects the everyday life of a simple individual. We cannot deny the factthat the different social networking sites became a part of our system. In thiscommunication media, individuals can share their feelings or thoughts to differentindividuals around the globe.There are massive numbers of persons involved in social networking but how thistype of communication media becomes a global trend today? What its nature that makesthis thing a commonly used communication media and its implications? In connection tothis problem, the researcher utilizes the theory of communicative action of JürgenH abermas. In a communicative action “two or more actors establish a relationship and seek to reach an understanding about the action situation and their plans of action in order to coordinate their actions by way of agreement” (Habermas 1984, 86). This type of communication action can be traced in using social networking.This study will focus on Jürgen Habermas concept of lifeworld. Lifeworld is asubject in the theory of communicative action and the relationship between lifeworld andcommunicative action is highly complementary. Jürgen Habermas states that “subjectsacting communicatively always come to an understanding in the horizon of the lifeworld” (Habermas 1984, 70). He makes a vital argument that in the course of history thelifeworld must be rationalized. To greatly understand the concept of lifeworld it must berationalized by the use of communicative action which is crucial in rationalizationprocess.
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