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Developing countries are now looking at Technical, Vocational education and Training as a vehicle to propel them into being among industrialized nations in the world. Efforts are now being concerted in those countries to refurbish and revamp technical institutions to help them realize the dream. It is on this basis that Kenya, just like other developing countries has embraced TVET as a key driver to Human Resource Development to facilitate her ambitious economic development plan Kenya Vision 2030. As such, various reforms were initiated at TVET institutions such as Curriculum reforms to enhance its relevance, provision of adequate and qualified Trainers, enhancement of infrastructural development and provision of adequate teaching and learning resources among other measures. As the clock ticks toward the year 2030, the target year for which envisaged development needs to have been realized, this study aimed at establishing the capacity of TVET institutions to produce relevant manpower for the realization of the economic pillar of the Kenya Vision 2030 development agenda. The study aimed at; establishing the relevance of courses at TVET institutions in view of the country’s’ development aspirations, the entry qualifications of Trainees and the competency of Trainers as reflected by their qualifications. The study was grounded in theoretical foundations of Human Capital Theory. The correlation research design was used for the study. The study was carried out in 10 TVET institutions that had been in existence more than 5 years prior to the date of the study in Vihiga, Kakamega, Busia and Bungoma Counties and all companies that offer internship opportunities to TVET Trainees. A target population was 8001 Trainees, 100 heads of department, 10 Human Resource Managers and 10 principals. Questionnaires, interview schedules, observation and document analysis guide were principle instruments for data collection. The study established that majority of Trainees were pursuing courses that were irrelevant to development of skills in line with country’s’ development aspirations; the initial qualification of Trainees had low entry qualifications, a situation that was likely to jeopardize their ability to develop key skills for envisaged economic development and Trainers though majority were university graduates and posted by Teachers’ Service Commission, lacked foundation in Technical Training is a critical component of TVET training. The study concluded that TVET institutions were ill- prepared to facilitate manpower development in line with country’s economic development aspirations.
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  www.iaset.useditor@iaset.us TECHNICAL, VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING INSTITUTIONS’ CAPACITIES IMPACT ON MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT FOR THEREALIZATION OF ECONOMIC PILLAR OF THE KENYA VISION 2030  Khatete Ibrahim 1 & Chepkoech Selina  2 1 Senior Lecturer, Department of Educational Administration and Planning,School of Education, University of Nairobi, Kenya 2  Research Scholar, Department of Educational Administration and Planning,Schoolof Education, University of Nairobi, Kenya  ABSTRACT   Developing countries are now looking at Technical, Vocational education and Training as a vehicle to propelthem into being among industrialized nations in the world. Efforts are now being concerted in those countries to refurbishand revamp technical institutions to help them realize the dream.It is on this basis that Kenya, just like other developingcountries has embraced TVET as a key driver to Human Resource Development to facilitate her ambitious economicdevelopment planKenya Vision 2030.As such, various reforms were initiated at TVET institutions such as Curriculumreforms to enhance its relevance, provision of adequate and qualified Trainers, enhancement of infrastructuraldevelopment and provision of adequate teaching and learning resources among other measures.As the clock ticks toward the year 2030, the target year for which envisaged development needsto have been realized,this study aimed at establishingthe capacity of TVET institutionsto produce relevant manpowerfor the realization of the economic pillar of theKenya Vision 2030 development agenda. The study aimed at; establishing the relevance of courses at TVET institutions in view of the country’s’ development aspirations, the entry qualifications of Trainees and the competency of Trainers asreflected by their qualifications. The study was groundedintheoretical foundationsof Human Capital Theory.The correlation research design was used for the study. The study was carried out in 10 TVET institutions that had beeninexistence more than 5 yearsprior to the date of the studyin Vihiga, Kakamega, Busia and Bungoma Countiesand allcompanies that offer internship opportunities to TVET Trainees.A target populationwas 8001 Trainees, 100heads of department,10 Human Resource Managers and 10 principals. Questionnaires, interview schedules, observation and document analysis guide were principle instruments for datacollection. The study established that majority of Traineeswere pursuing courses that were irrelevant to development of skills in line with country’s’ development aspirations; the initial qualification of Trainees had low entry qualifications, a situationthat waslikely to jeopardize their ability todevelopkey skillsfor envisaged economic developmentandTrainers though majority were university graduates and posted  by Teachers’ Service Commission, lacked   foundation in Technical Training is a critical component of TVET training.The studyconcluded that TVET institutions were ill-prepared to facilitate manpower development in line with country’s economicdevelopment aspirations.  KEYWORDS:  Developing Countries,Looking at Technical, Vocational Educationand Training International Journal of Humanitiesand Social Sciences (IJHSS)ISSN(P): 2319-393X; ISSN(E): 2319-3948Vol. 7, Issue2,Feb-Mar2018;31-42© IASET   32  Khatete Ibrahim & Chepkoech Selina Impact Factor (JCC): 4.7985NAAS Rating 3.17   Article History Received:13Feb2018| Revised: 28Feb2018| Accepted: 21Mar2018 INTRODUCTION Background to the Study Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has been identified to playacritical role in skilldevelopment that has propelled many developed countries of the world,especially the seven Tiger countries.Developments in TVET have been identified asavery significant explanatory variable that has contributed to East and South Eastern Asian countries’ (seven Tiger countries) economic growth (W orld Bank, 1991). The approach encouragedand supported knowledge-based economies, skills development and response to modern and emerging technologicaladvancement which have remained the major impetusforthe economic developments in those countries. For example,Singapore inthe1960s to 1980s competed globally and favorably ahead of emerging industrial Tigers like Korea,China and India because of her prowess in encouraging and supporting knowledge-based economies, industry-related skillsdevelopmentthat respondsto modern and emerging technological advancement (Agrawal, 2011). At the heart of thisindustrial development are revolutionary products of education,such as; technological innovations; Research andDevelopment (RD), science and technology parks; and business incubators (UNESCO, 2004).African countries are trying to emulate the development agenda of the Tiger countries by emphasizingrefurbishment and rebranding of the TVET institutions as reflected in various Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers thatgovernments have developed in collaboration withtheWorld Bank (African Union, 2007). For instance, Sierra Leonemainstreamed youth employment with the government developing Youth Action Plan where TVET was earmarked to playa key role in skill development to alleviate youth unemployment as an agenda for change in its Second Poverty ReductionStrategy (PRSSP11) 2008-2012 (AU, 2007). In recognition of the role of TVET in skill formationinnational development,Tanzanian government establishedVocational Educational Training Authority (VETA) whose responsibility is to promotedevelopment of skills in line with demands of labor markets (AU, 2007).However, the refurbishing and rebranding of TVET institutions is not enough. Technical, Vocational Education,and Training reformarenot just about ways of doing things. It is about changing the mindset of the TVET sector.If the sector is to meet the increasing demands of the global labor market, it needs to focus on becoming flexible, inclusive,efficient and collaborative. For example, in order to meet the labor demands, TVET must deliver quality skills thatemployers wanttoknowthat these needs are constantly changing. Through improving the responsiveness and flexibility of  TVET, institutions’ reform will enable them to better meet industry needs. In order for quality training to be delivered and assessed, TVET practitioners need to move away from lecturing and towards practical, competency-based methods. This,of course will be possible by building the capacity of managers to understand the need for reforms and by improvingTVET teacher training methods.The reform should not be confined to the TVET institutions it also involvesstakeholders. There should be afostered stronger relationship between training institutions and industry to ensure that graduates have the skills needed byemployers. The institutions and employers together must meet the increasing needs of the labor market amidst changingtechnology. Reforms should encourage these partnerships through skills councils and encourage best practices throughthe  Technical, Vocational Education and Training Instit utions’ Capacities Impact   on Manpower  33  Development for theRealization of Economic Pillar of the Kenya Vision 2030www.iaset.useditor@iaset.us establishment of centers of excellence. Therefore,among the key reform objective is to make TVET accessible to allincluding youth with low literacy and numeracy competencies, child workers, women,and rural communities and personswith disabilities. All those who desire to be enrolled and benefit from the reform should be encouraged. To do this,reform should concentrate on removing policy-related barriers, such as minimum education qualifications or levels.The other would be the removal of physical barriers such as transport systems whichdonot gender friendly.In Kenya, the Presidential Working Party on the establishment ofthesecond University famously known asMackay Commission (GoK, 1981) recommended introduction of 8.4.4 system of education to make education morerelevant to the world of work whiletheKamunge report (GoK, 1988) advocated for Vocational education both of whichlaid the foundation for the components of the Kenya Vision 2030. The Kenya Vision 2030 economic pillar (GoK, 2007),envisages Kenya to be an industrialized middle-income country with high-quality life for her citizens by the year2030.Underthis Vision, the annual economic growth rate of 10 percent was anticipated by 2012 and was expected to bemaintained or exceeded thereafter. To make this a reality, six priority sectors have been identified in the Kenya Vision2030; Tourism; Agriculture and Livestock, Wholesale and Retail Trade, Manufacturing, Business Process, Outsourcing / IT Enabled Services (ITES) and Financial Services as the potential areas to spur the country’s economic development.Oil and Mineral Resources is the seventh priority sector undertheSecond Medium Term Plan(GoK, 2013a).All these sectors require human resources with relevant skills and knowledge. This requires great emphasis on the link between education and Training and the labor market and the need to create entrepreneurial skills and competencies.To drive this agenda, TVET institutions are earmarked to play a critical role inthedevelopment of human labor that willenable the country meet her desired levels of economic development. There is need therefore to examine the reforms in theTVET sector to help this agenda.The reforms should target the type of courses offered, initial qualifications of students being trained; the state of teaching and learning resources in training institutions; qualifications of trainers as well as the state of infrastructuredevelopments in the institutions. All these would affect the projections and levels of human labor output in the country.The type of education as determined by the courses offered would determine the degree to which knowledge andtechnologies can be transferred and absorbed in the labor market that affectsthecapacity of the state to build up itsindigenous industries and to compete in World markets with their goods and services (Amsden, 1992).As earlier mentioned, the contribution of the TVET to this end will rely heavily on the policies governing the operations in the sector, institutions’ mindset, relevance, efficiency and access to the learners which formed the basis of  the research. The study aimed at assessing the TVET institutions’ Manpower Development Capacities’ impact on the realization of economic pillar of the Kenya Vision 2030. TheSpecific Objectivesof theStudy Wereto; ã Establish the impact of the type of courses offered at TVET institutions on the human labor developmentcapacities for the realization of the economic pillar of the Kenya Vision 2030. ã Determine how the entry qualifications of students at TVET institutions impact on themanpower developmentcapacities for the realization of the economic pillar of the Kenya Vision 2030. ã Determine how the qualification of trainers at TVET institutions impacts on the manpower developmentcapacities for the realization of the economic pillar of the Kenya Vision 2030.   34  Khatete Ibrahim & Chepkoech Selina Impact Factor (JCC): 4.7985NAAS Rating 3.17  ResearchQuestionsof theStudy To help in examining the objectives set, the following research questions guided the study: ã How do the courses offered at TVET institutions affect the manpower development capacities for the realizationof the economic pillar of the Kenya Vision 2030? ã To what extent is the qualifications of students admitted at TVET institutions influence the manpowerdevelopment capacities for the realization of the economic pillar of the Kenya Vision 2030. ã How does the qualification oftrainers relate to the manpower development capacities at TVET institutions on therealization of the economic pillar of the Kenya Vision 2030?It is anticipated that the findings from the study may be beneficial to several stakeholders. First,atthepolicy levelof policy formation and implementation, the findings may provide concrete evidence to guide policy makers to come upwith policy reforms to enhance the operationsofthe TVET institutions to increase their capacity to develop requiredmanpower in both quantitative and qualitative terms to meet the country’s development aspiration. Secondly,study recommendations may form a basis on how to improve TVET institutions’ service delivery ,especiallyinthe trainingof Trainers in their effort to address issues that affect human capital capacity development. The study findings maycontribute to the enrichment of existing knowledge in the area of human capital development in TVET institutions.The limitation of this study arose from the fact that relevant offices did not respond promptly to the questionnairesciting busy schedules and too much workloads. This was overcome by the researchers extendingthetime for them torespond.The study was carried out in Public TVET institutions in the four counties of the western region of the countryKenya; Vihiga, Kakamega, Bungoma and Busia Counties. The institutions that participated in the study were those thathave been in existence for a period of more than 5 years at the date of the study. The study focused on key tenets of humancapacity building,namely; courses offered; entry qualifications of student and qualifications of trainers.The respondentswere the students, heads of departments, principals of technical institutions in the four counties and human resourcemanagers of two major companies where students take their practicum experiences within the area under study. TheFollowingTerms Feature Very Prominentlyin theReport: Access, CapacityBuilding, Industry, ManpowerDevelopment, TVET This studywas founded on theoretical foundations of Human Capital Theory (HCT) propounded by amongothers; Schultz (1961); Becker (1964) and Weisbrod (1966). The theory is found on three basic assumptions. First,labor skills are durable and malleable. Secondly, thecurrent productivity contributes to current earnings and affects futureproductivity and thirdly,there is a positive association betweentheamount of schooling and individual earnings.According to Becker, Human Capital is useful inthe  production process as it increases workers’ productivity in all tasks, though possibly differentially in different tasks, organization,and situations. The HCT theory advocates for investment ineducation just as capital is invested inthebusiness to generate returns.Under Kenya vision 2030, TVET institutions are charged with the responsibility of skills training of the people topropel the country the status of a medium industrialized nation by the year 2030. However, Fritz (1982) questioned theab ility of investment in education neither alone promoting country’s economic development considering that education is
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