Bio 1st Exp Report

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    MARKS (10%) Procedure (1%) Results (2%) Analysis (2%) Discussion (2%) Conclusion (1%) Lab Skills & Technique (2%) TOTAL (10%) UiTM CAWANGAN SABAH   BIO260 BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM   LABORATORY REPORT   TITLE : DISSECTION OF THE MAMMALIAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM EXPERIMENT NO. : 2 CLASS/GROUP : AS1203A3 DATE OF EXPERIMENT : 4/10/2017 DATE OF SUBMISSION : 11/10/2017 LECTURER’S NAME  : MOHD NASIR BIN ABDUL RASAH No. Group Member Student ID 1. SHARRONE AZZEL JUSSIL 2016604172 2. MARLIA BINTI MAKSON 2016482018 3. ROLAND JEFFREY CHIA 2016452552 4. HOSEA HIZKIA DARIS 2016639638 5. ERIC ELFOCIO GERARD 2014298748    1.0 OBJECTIVE To identify the factors affecting the rate of transpiration 1.1 INTRODUCTION Plant require carbon dioxide, water, mineral salts and oxygen. In lower plants these are transported by diffusion; in higher plants specialized vascular tissues are required. In land  plants carbon dioxide is taken up through stomata, which are located mainly on the underside of the leaves. Bordered by guard cell, the stomata are controlled by an osmotic mechanism, dependent on the active transport of potassium ions, which ensures that generally they open by day and close by night. The stomata also permit the escape of water vapor from the plant (transpiration). The rate of transpiration can be estimated indirectly by measuring the rate of water uptake by a cut leafy shoot, using a potometer. The rate of transpiration depends on temperature, relative humidity, air movements, atmospheric pressure, light and water supply. To replace the water transpired from the aboveground parts of plant water, taken up by the roots, flows through the  plant in the transpiration stream. Water moves through the living tissues of the plant mainly by the apoplast (cell walls) and to some extent via the symplast (cytoplasm) and vacuoles. The rate at which water enters a plant depends on the rate at which it evaporates from the leaves, i.e. is transpired into the surrounding atmosphere. Any external condition, which affects the rate of transpiration, will be expected to have a corresponding effect on the rate of water uptake. 1.2 MATERIALS 1.2.1  Potometer 1.2.2  Cutters 1.2.3  Electric fan 1.2.4  Heat source 1.2.5  Squared paper 1.2.6  Leafy shoot    1.3 METHODS Setting Up the Potometer 1.3.1  The potometer was filled completely with water.  1.3.2  The cut stalk of the leafy shoots was put into the water and the last centimeter of the stalk was cut off obliquely under water. 1.3.3  The stalk is attached to the potometer while the potometer and stalk still underwater. The system is ensured to have no air bubble.  1.3.4  The potometer is mounted in a fixed position.  1.3.5  The end of the capillary tube was rested in a beaker of water and water bubbles were expelled by letting in water in the reservoir.  Using the Potometer 1.3.1  A trial run was performed with the plant in normal conditions. The capillary tube was removed from the beaker for a few seconds to allow a air bubble to enter it. The distance moved  by the air bubble was measured in certain interval of time.  1.3.2  The bubble was returned to the beginning and the procedure was repeated. 1.3.3  Trials were continued to be made until the plants settled down to a steady rate of transpiration.  Experiments 1.3.1  The effect on the rate of transpiration on some or all of the following situations were investigated:  1.3.2  The plant is placed in a current of air, created by an electric fan. 1.3.3  The plant is put in a humid environment. 1.3.4 The temperature is raised by putting the plant under hot sun. Processing Your Results 1.3.1  The rate of water uptake in distance moved by the air is expressed by the air bubble per unit time.  1.3.2  If the volume of the water that each division of the scale corresponds to is known, the results should be converted to volume of water taken up per unit time.  1.3.3  The total area of the leaf was estimated by laying them on squared paper.    1.4 RESULTS Table 1.4.1: Transpiration Rate of Plant at Different Place Experimental Group Windy High temperature Low temperature  Normal Amount of water intake (cm) Initial: 0 Initial: 0 Initial: 0 Initial: 0 Final: 0.20 Final: 0.35 Final: 0.30 Final: 0.10 Amount: 0.20 Amount: 0.35 Amount: 0.30 Amount: 0.10  Number of leaves 7 7 7 7 Leaf area  ( 2 )  15.65 15.65 15.65 15.65
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