Biology Form 4 Compilation of Experiments

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EXPERIMENT 1 Title Aim Materials Apparatus Procedure Structures of animal cell and plant cell To study the structures of animal cell and plant cell Onion, Hydrilla sp leaf, toothpick, distilled water, filter paper, blue methylene solution, iodine solution Light microscope, cover slips, slides, dropper, razor blade, forceps, scalpels a. To observe the structure of cheek cells 1. Some cells were scrapped carefully from inside of the cheek using the blunt end of a toothpick. 2. The scrapping was sp
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  EXPERIMENT 1  TitleStructures of animal cell and plant cellAimTo study the structures of animal cell and plant cellMaterials Onion, Hydrilla sp leaf, toothpick, distilled water, filter paper, blue methylene solution, iodine solutionApparatus Light microscope, cover slips, slides, dropper, razor blade, forceps, scalpelsProcedure a.To observe the structure of cheek cells1.Some cells were scrapped carefully from inside of the cheek using the blunt end of a toothpick.2.The scrapping was spread onto a clean slide.3.A drop of blue methylene solution is added to the smear.4.A cover slip was placed at an angle to the solution on the slide. The cover slip was slide slowly tocover the specimen without trapping air bubbles.5.The solution around or on the slide was cleaned up and dried.6.The cheek cell was examined under a microscope, first on low magnification then on highmagnification. The structure of the cheek cell is drawn and labeled in the space provided.b.To observe the structure of epidermal cells of an onion 1. An epidermal layer of an onion measuring 1cm X 1cm is peeled of using a razor blade and scalpelsand stripped off using forceps. 2.  The epidermal onion leaf is mounted onto a clean slide with a drop of water. 3. 2 drops of iodine solution were added to the epidermal onion leaf.4.A cover slip was placed at an angle to the solution on the slide. The cover slip was slide slowly tocover the specimen without trapping air bubbles.5.The solution around or on the slide was cleaned up and dried. 6.  The onion cell was examined under a microscope, first on low magnification then on highmagnification. The structure of the onion cell is drawn and labeled in the space provided. 7. Another slide with Hydrilla sp leaf is prepared and observed.ObservationsDiscussion 1.What is the effect of iodine solution on the epidermal cells of onion and Hydrilla sp.? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________  _____________________________________________________________________________________________________  __ 2.What is the function of methylene blue solution in the preparation of the cheek cells slide? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.What will be observed if iodine solution is used to stain cheek cells? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.Based on your observations, state the differences between epidermal cell of onion and cheek cell. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________  _____________________________________________________________________________________________________  _____________________________________________________________________________________________________  ___ Conclusion1.A cell is the ___________________________ of life.2.Animal and plant cell have ______________, ________________ and ________________ in common. 3. Green plant cells have __________________ and ___________________.  EXPERIMENT 2 TitleMovement of substances across a semi permeable membraneAimTo study the movement of substances across a semi permeable membraneProblemstatementWhat substances are able to move across a semi permeable membrane?HypothesisMolecules which are __________________ than the pores of a Visking tube are able to move acrossthe plasma membrane.VariablesConstant : _______________________________ Manipulated : _______________________________ Responding : _______________________________ MaterialsBenedict’s solution, 1% starch suspension, iodine solution, 30% glucose solution, Visking tube(25cm), distilled water, thread.Apparatus2 test tubes, 3 beakers, Bunsen burner, wire gauze, tripod stand Technique _________ for the presence of starch and glucose with iodine and Benedict’s solution respectivelyMethod 1.A Visking tubing is immersed in water until it is soft.2.One end of the Visking tubing is firmly tightened with thread.3.The Visking tubing is then filled up with 10 ml of starch solution and 10 ml of glucosesolution.The other end of the Visking tubing is tightened. The colour of the solution in theVisking tubing is recorded.4.The whole Visking tubing is rinsed with distilled water.5.The Visking tubing is placed in a beaker of water with 10 ml iodine solution in it (500 mlwater + 3 ml iodine).6.The experiment is set aside for 30 minutes.7.After 30 minutes, the Visking tubing is taken from the beaker and placed in a dry beaker.8.The colour of the solution in the Visking tubing and in the beaker is recorded. 9.  The solution in the Visking tubing and solution in the beaker are tested for the presence of reducing sugar (glucose) by using Benedict’s test.a)2 ml of the solution to be tested is put into a test tube. 1 ml of the Benedict’sreagent is added to it.b)The test tube is placed in a hot water bath and heated. Any change in colour isrecorded.Results TestContents of ViskingtubingContents of beaker InitialcolourFinal colourInitial colourFinal colourIodine testClearBlue blackBrownBrownBenedicttestBlueBlueBlueOrangeprecipitateDiscussion 1. Based on the results, make an inference on the size of the iodine molecules as comparedto starch molecules. ______________________________________________________________________________________________  ____________________________________________________________________________  2. Compare the size of the glucose molecules with the starch molecules. ______________________________________________________________________________________________  ____________________________________________________________________________ 3.Based on the results of the experiment, briefly explain the need of the breakdown of starch into glucose in the digestive canal. ______________________________________________________________________________________________  ____________________________________________________________________________   ConclusionIs the hypothesis accepted or rejected? Give reasons for your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________________________  _______________________________________________________________________________ EXPERIMENT 3 TitleEffects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on animal cells.AimTo study the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on animal cells.MaterialsFresh chicken blood, 0.15 M sodium chloride solutions, 0.50 M sodium chloride solutions,Distilled water, Filter paperApparatusGlass slides, Cover slips, Filter papers, Light microscope, Test tubes, Beakers, Dropper Technique _____________ and study the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on animalcells from the slides by using microscopeMethod 1.4 slides were labeled as A, B, C and D.2.A drop of blood was dropped on slide A and covered with a cover slip and is observedunder a light microscope.3.A drop of distilled water was dropped on slide B and covered with a cover slip. A dropof blood was put at one side of the cover slip.4.The slide was observed under a light microscope after the blood was drawn into thewater.5.Steps 3 and 4 were repeated using 0.15 and 0.50M sodium chloride solutions on slideC and D respectively.ObservationsSpecimen ABCDShape orcondition of redblood cellDrawing of cellDiscussion 1.Which solution is:a.Isotonic : _____________________________ b.Hypotonic : _____________________________ c.Hypertonic : _____________________________ 2.Name the process in slide B: __________________________ 3.Explained the process mentioned in question 2. __________________________________________________________________________________________  __________________________________________________________________________________________  ________________________________________________________________________________ 4.Explain the observation made in slide D. __________________________________________________________________________________________  __________________________________________________________________________________________  ________________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion 1.Red blood cells in hypotonic solution will _____________________. This phenomenon iscalled as _________________.  2.Red blood cells in hypertonic solution will _____________________. This phenomenon iscalled as _________________.3.Red blood cells in isotonic solution will _____________________.EXPERIMENT 3 TitleEffects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on plant cells.AimTo study the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on plant cells.MaterialsOnion bulb, 0.5 M sucrose solutions, 1.0 M sucrose solutions, Distilled waterApparatusLight microscope, Glass slides, Cover slips, Razor blade / scalpel, A pair of forceps, MountingneedleFilter papers Technique ______________ and study the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on plant cellsfrom the slides by using microscope.Method 1.A thin layer of epidermal cell of onion was stripped and mounted on slide A.2.A drop of distilled water was dropped on it and covered with a cover slip.3.The slide was examined under a light microscope using low power and then high power.4.Steps 1 – 2 was repeated with 0.5 M and 1.0M sucrose solutions on slide B and Crespectively.5.All observations were recorded.ResultsSlide Shape or condition of thecellDrawing of the cellABCDiscussion1.Which solution is:a.Isotonic : _____________________________ b.Hypotonic : _____________________________ c.Hypertonic : _____________________________ 2.Name the process in slide C: __________________________ 3.Explained the process mentioned in question 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________________________  ________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.Explain the observation made in slide A. ______________________________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________________________  ________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.What will happen if cell in slide C is moved to another slide and a drop of water is addedon it? ______________________________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Conclusi1.Epidermal cells in hypotonic solution will _____________________. This phenomenon is called
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