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Designation: C 559 – 90 (Reapproved 2000) An American National Standard Standard Test Method for Bulk Density by Physical Measurements of Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Articles1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation C 559; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial c
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  Designation: C 559 – 90 (Reapproved 2000) An American National Standard Standard Test Method for Bulk Density by Physical Measurements of ManufacturedCarbon and Graphite Articles 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation C 559; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of srcinal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon ( e ) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. 1. Scope 1.1 This test method covers the determination of the bulk density of manufactured articles of carbon and graphite of atleast 500 mm 3 volume. The bulk density is calculated to anaccuracy of 0.25 %, using measurements of mass and dimen-sions in air at 25 6 5°C.1.2 This standard does not purport to address the safetyconcerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibilityof the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatorylimitations prior to use. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards: IEEE/ASTM SI-10 Standard for Use of the InternationalSystem of Units (SI) (the Modern Metric System) 2 3. Terminology 3.1 Definition of Term Specific to This Standard: 3.1.1 bulk density —the mass of a unit volume of materialincluding both permeable and impermeable voids. 4. Significance and Use 4.1 Bulk density as determined by this test method is a basicmaterial property of importance in manufacturing and applica-tion of carbon and graphite.4.2 This test method can be used for quality and processcontrol, material characterization and description, and otherpurposes. 5. Preparation of Test Specimens 5.1 Machine test specimens from the manufactured articlein the form of a rectangular parallelepiped or a right circularcylinder. The minimum mass of the specimen shall be 2000times the sensitivity of the balance used to weigh the specimen,and the volume of the specimen shall not be less than 500 mm 3 .The minimum dimension of the specimen shall be the larger of:5.1.1 Ten times the length of the largest visible particle and5.1.2 2000 times the resolution of the device used formeasuring the dimension.5.2 During the machining operation, use no lubricant havinga boiling point above 100°C. All corners, edges, and faces of the specimen should be free of chips or gouges. Ensure that thespecimen is free of any residue from the machining operation.Dry the specimen for a minimum of 2 h at 110°C, and thenallow it to cool to 25 6 5°C in a desiccator. The specimen shallnot be removed from the desiccator until immediately prior toweighing. 6. Procedure 6.1 Weigh the specimen to an accuracy of 0.05 % using abalance or scale. During the weighing operation, handle thespecimen with soft-tipped tongs.6.2 Measure each dimension of the test specimen to anaccuracy of 0.05 %.6.2.1 If the specimen is a rectangular parallelepiped, makefour measurements of the length (longest dimension). Takeeach measurement along the center of each of the four longfaces of the specimen. Measure the width and thickness at eachend and at two intermediate points along the length of thespecimen. Determine the mean of each dimension.6.2.2 If the specimen is a right circular cylinder, measure thelength at four points, 90° apart on the periphery of the circularend faces. Make two sets of diameter measurements. Each setshall consist of four measurements, one at each end and two atintermediate points along an axial line. These sets shall lie at90° to each other. Determine the mean length and the mean of each of the two sets of diameter measurements. 7. Calculation 7.1 Convert the mass to milligrams and the dimensions tomillimetres, or convert the mass to megagrams and thedimensions to metres. Conversion factors are available inIEEE/ASTM SI-10.7.2 The volume of the specimen may be calculated asfollows:For a rectangular parallelepiped: 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D02 onPetroleum Products and Lubricants and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeD02.F on Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Products.Current edition approved Mar. 30, 1990. Published May 1990. Originallypublished as C 559 – 68 T. Last previous edition C 559 – 85. 2  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 14.02. 1 Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.  V  5 l wt  (1) where: V  = volume, mm 3 (or m 3 ), l = mean length, mm (or m), w = mean width, mm (or m), and t  = mean thickness, mm (or m).For a right circular cylinder: V  5 ~ p d  1 d  2 l !  /4 (2) where: d  1  , d  2 = mean diameters, mm (or m).7.3 The bulk density of the specimen may be calculated asfollows:  D 5 M/V  (3) where:  D = bulk density, mg/mm 3 (or Mg/m 3 ),  M  = mass, mg (or Mg), and V  = volume, mm 3 (or m 3 ). 8. Report 8.1 Report the following:8.1.1 Type, source, grade, and form of the sample, and8.1.2 Densities of the individual specimens and the mean. 9. Precision and Bias 9.1 No numerical statement can be made on the intralabo-ratory or interlaboratory precision of this test method, sincesuch tests have not been run. The resultant density will beaccurate to within the claimed 0.25 % if the following condi-tions are met in their entirety:9.1.1 All measuring devices (calipers, scales, and balances)have accuracy, at the time of use, equal to the resolution of thedevice. Such accuracy can be verified by measurement of standards before and after any series of density determinations,plus a program of regular calibration of standards.9.1.2 The machined specimens have right angles accurate to 6 1°.9.1.3 The machined specimens have plane surfaces flat towithin 0.05 % of the dimension perpendicular to the plane. If the specimen is a rectangular parallelepiped, nonparallel oppo-site sides will cause a systematic error if a standard micrometerhaving flat anvil faces is used. (If a round anvil micrometer isused, disregard the following.) The systematic error will begreater than the accuracy of the measurement if the measure-ments of a given dimension are uniformly increasing ordecreasing along the specimen, and if tan u > (0.001) (meandimension being measured)/(micrometer anvil diameter),where u is the angle by which the sides deviate from parallel-ism ( u = 0° for parallel sides). If tan u is greater than thespecified tolerance, the specimen should be discarded.9.2 If specimens having volumes close to the minimum (500mm 3 ) are used, extra care should be taken to ensure that thespecified accuracies are achieved.9.3 Surface roughness may cause systematic errors in di-mension measurements since micrometer calipers generallyread surface peaks. In order to ensure that the accuracystandards for dimension measurements are met, the maximumpeak-to-valley distance shall be less than 0.05 % of thedimension being measured.9.4 The buoyant effect of the air will cause a systematicerror. For typical carbon and graphite, the densities will be lowby approximately 0.05 %. This systematic error has been takeninto account in the overall bias (0.25 %) of the test method.9.5 Errors can be introduced by deformation of specimensfrom application of force during dimensional measurement.Care must be taken not to exert force on a specimen duringmeasurement, particularly when measuring a low modulusmaterial.9.6 Contamination of specimens during handling can causethe apparent mass to deviate from the true mass. The cautionsin Sections 5 and 6 concerning specimen handling and clean-liness must be observed. 10. Keywords 10.1 bulk; carbon density; graphite; gravimetric; physical ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn.Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org). C 559 2
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