Conductivity Experiment

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Conductivity Experiment
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  4.0 EXPERIMENTS ON DETERMINATION OF CONDUCTIVITY OF WATER SAMPLE   Sl. No.   Contents   Preamble   4.1   Aim   4.2   Introduction   4.2.1   Environmental Significance   4.3   Principle   4.4   Materials Required   4.4.1   Apparatus Required   4.4.2   Chemicals Required   4.5   Sample Handling and Preservation   4.5.1   Precautions   4.6   Procedure   4.6.1   Preparation of Reagents   4.6.2   Testing of Water Sample   4.7   Data Sheet   4.8   Interpretation of Results   4.9   Inference    4.0 EXPERIMENTS ON DETERMINATION OF CONDUCTIVITY OF WATER SAMPLE   PREAMBLE:   “ How to determine conductivity in Water and Wastewater  ”.   Test procedure is in accordance to IS: 3025 (Part 14) - Reaffirmed 2002.   In addition to our Indian Standard, we also discuss in brief regarding the procedure stated in   (1) APHA Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater - 20 th  Edition. Method 2510. (2) Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, EPA-600/4-79-020, USEPA, Method 120.1. 4.1 AIM   To determine the conductivity of given water sample with the stipulations as per IS: 3025 (Part 14) - Reaffirmed 2002 .   4.2 INTRODUCTION   Conductivity of a substance is defined as 'the ability or power to conduct or transmit heat, electricity or sound'. When an electrical potential difference is placed across a conductor, its movable charges flow, giving rise to an electric current. This property is called conductivity. Since the charge on ions in solution facilitates the conductance of electrical current, the conductivity of a solution is proportional to its ion concentration.   The electrical conductivity can be expressed as mhos (Reciprocal of ohms) or as siemens. The conductivity of water is a measure of the ability of water to carry an electric current. In most water, the conductivity is very low, so millisiemens or microsiemens are used as units for water conductivity. The conductivity of water is directly linked to the concentration of the ions and their mobility. The ions in water acts as electrolytes and conducts the electricity.   The conductivity depends on the value of the pH, on the temperature of measurement and on the amount of CO 2  which has been dissolved in the water to form ions. The conductivity is also affected by the concentration of ions already present in the water such as chloride, sodium and ammonium. Chemical composition of water determines its conductivity. Hence this becomes the most widely used measure of the purity of water.    . 4.2.1 ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE     Electrical conductivity measurements are often employed to monitor desalination plants.    It is useful to assess the source of pollution.    In coastal regions, conductivity data can be used to decide the extent of intrusion of sea water into ground water.    Conductivity data is useful in determining the suitability of water and wastewater for disposal on land. Irrigation waters up to 2 millisiemens / cm conductance have been found to be suitable for irrigation depending on soils and climatic characteristics.      It is also used indirectly to fine out inorganic dissolved solids.   4.3   PRINCIPLE   Conductivity is measured with a probe and a meter. A voltage is applied between the two electrodes in the probe immersed in the sample water. The drop in voltage caused by the resistance of the water is used to calculate the   conductivity per centimeter.   Conductivity (G), the inverse of resistivity (R) is determined from the voltage and current values according to Ohm’s law. i.e. R=V/I then, G=1/R=I/V.   The meter converts the probe measurement to micro mhos per centimeter and displays the result for the user.   4.4 MATERIALS REQUIRED   4.4.1 APPARATUS REQUIRED   1. Conductivity Meter with Electrode /ATC probe 2. Magnetic Stirrer with stirring bead 3. Standard flask 4. Measuring jar 5. Beaker 250 mL 6. Funnel 7. Tissue Paper  4.4.2 CHEMICALS REQUIRED   1. Potassium Chloride 2. Distilled Water
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