Eu Industrial Policy

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EU Industrial Policy
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  Fact Sheets on the European Union - 20171 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EU INDUSTRIAL POLICY The EU’s industrial policy aims to make European industry more competitive so thatit can maintain its role as a driver of sustainable growth and employment in Europe.Various strategies have been adopted in order to ensure better framework conditions for EUindustry, the most recent being described in the communication ‘For a European IndustrialRenaissance’, of January 2014. LEGAL BASIS Article 173 TFEU. OBJECTIVES Industrial policy is horizontal in nature and aims to secure framework conditions favourable toindustrial competitiveness. It is also well integrated into a number of other EU policies such asthose relating to trade, the internal market, research and innovation, employment, environmental protection and public health. EU industrial policy is specifically aimed at: (1) ‘speeding upthe adjustment of industry to structural changes’; (2) ‘encouraging an environment favourableto initiative and to the development of undertakings throughout the Union, particularly smalland medium-sized undertakings’; (3) ‘encouraging an environment favourable to cooperation between undertakings’; and (4) ‘fostering better exploitation of the industrial potential of  policies of innovation, research and technological development’ (Article 173 TFEU). ACHIEVEMENTS A. IntroductionThe instruments of the EU’s industrial policy, which are also those of enterprise policy, aimto create the general conditions in which entrepreneurs and businesses can take initiatives andexploit their ideas and opportunities. Nonetheless, industrial policy should take into account thespecific needs and characteristics of individual sectors. The annual European CompetitivenessReports analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the EU’s economy in general and its industryin particular, and may trigger cross-sectoral or sectoral policy initiatives. B. Towards an integrated industrial policyIn July 2005, for the first time, a Commission communication on ‘Implementing the CommunityLisbon Programme: A policy framework to strengthen EU manufacturing — towards a moreintegrated approach for industrial policy’ (COM(2005) 0474) set out an integrated approach toindustrial policy based on a concrete work programme of cross-sectoral and sectoral initiatives.The ‘mid-term review of industrial policy’ (COM(2007) 0374) concluded that the actionsdescribed in the 2005 communication had benefited Europe’s industries, with regard to bothlarge companies and SMEs. It emphasised that the integrated approach had proved successful  Fact Sheets on the European Union - 20172and had the support of Parliament and of the Member States. Consequently, it argued that theframework should be kept in place, as it would allow industry to best respond to the challengesof globalisation and climate change.The 2008 Commission communication entitled ‘Sustainable Consumption and Production andSustainable Industrial Policy Action Plan’ (COM(2008) 0397) was aimed at delivering anintegrated package of measures to foster more sustainable consumption and production, whilemaking the European economy more competitive. In order to achieve this ‘virtuous circle’, theAction Plan proposed making use of a variety of policy instruments. For example, consumer demands were to be channelled towards more sustainable consumption through a simplifiedlabelling framework.In response to the challenges involved in securing a sustaina ble supply of non-energyraw materials for the EU economy, the Commission launched the ‘raw materialsinitiative’ (COM(2008) 0699), which seeks to ensure a level playing field in access to resourcesin third countries, better framework conditions for extracting raw materials within the EU,and reduced consumption of primary raw materials through increased resource efficiency andthe promotion of recycling. A subsequent Commission communication (COM(2011) 0021) proposed reinforcing the implementation of this initiative.In its communication ‘Preparing for our future: Developing a common strategy for key enablingtechnologies in the EU’ (COM(2009) 0512), the Commission stated that the EU would foster the deployment of key enabling technologies (KETs) within its current policy framework, andalso suggested setting up a High Level Group of experts (HLG) which would be responsiblefor developing a common long-term strategy. In its final report, the High Level Group proposed11 policy recommendations for the development and deployment of KETs in Europe. C. The Europe 2020 strategy and ‘An industrial policy for the globalisation era’In March 2010, the Lisbon Strategy was replaced by the Europe 2020 strategy (‘Europe 2020 — A Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth’ — (COM(2010) 2020)). Thenew strategy put forward seven flagship initiatives, four of which are especially relevantto making the EU’s industry more competitive: ‘Innovation Union’ (COM(2010) 0546), ‘Adigital agenda for Europe’ (COM(2010) 0245   ), ‘An industrial policy for the globalisationera’ (COM(2010) 0614   ) and ‘New Skills for New Jobs’ (COM(2008) 0868). The flagshipinitiative ‘An industrial policy for the globalisation era’ focuses on 10 actions to promoteEuropean industrial competitiveness, thus placing more emphasis on factors such as the growthof SMEs and the supply and management of raw materials.The Commission communication ‘Industrial Policy: Reinforcingcompetitiveness’ (COM(2011) 0642), adopted on 14 October 2011, called for deep structuralreforms as well as coherent and coordinated policies across the Member States to enhance theEU’s economic and industrial competitiveness and foster long-term sustainable growth. Thiscommunication pointed out several key areas in which greater effort is needed: structural changein the economy; the innovativeness of industries; sustainability and resource efficiency; the business environment; the single market; and SMEs.On 10 October 2012, the Commission issued a communication (COM(2012) 0582) entitled‘A Stronger European Industry for Growth and Economic Recovery — Industrial PolicyCommunication Update’, aiming at supporting investment in innovation, with a focus on six priority areas with great potential (advanced manufacturing technologies for clean production;key enabling technologies; bio-based products; sustainable industrial and construction policyand raw materials; clean vehicles and vessels; and smart grids). This communication also  Fact Sheets on the European Union - 20173highlighted the need for better market conditions, access to finance and capital, and humancapital and skills, as means of promoting industrial competitiveness.In January 2014 the Commission launched the communication ‘For a European IndustrialRenaissance’ (COM(2014) 0014). This communication focuses on reversing industrial declineand reaching the target of 20% of GDP for manufacturing activities by 2020. The Commissionstates that in order to attract new investments and create a better business environment, theEU needs more coherent politics in the field of the internal market, including Europeaninfrastructure such as energy, transport and information networks, as well as for goodsand services. The importance of improved cooperation in the areas of good quality publicadministration, trade, research and raw materials is also mentioned. ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT The Maastricht changes to the EC Treaty incorporated issues of industrial policy for the first time — an achievement that can be attributed to initiatives by Parliament, which helped stimulatethe reorganisation of the steel sector and called for a more dynamic industrial policy. Sincethen, Parliament has adopted numerous resolutions which have further strengthened the EU’sindustrial policy. Some of the more recent ones are listed below: —its resolution of 16 June 2010 on the Europe 2020 strategy [1]  expressed strong supportfor industrial policy, and proposed creating an environment conducive to maintainingand developing a strong, competitive and diversified industrial base in Europe. It further stressed that the Europe 2020 strategy should disclose the costs and benefits of conversionto a sustainable, energy-efficient economy; —its resolution of 9 March 2011 on ‘An Industrial Policy for the Globalised Era’ [2]  underlinedthe importance of a more comprehensive vision for European industry by 2020, consideringlong-term regulatory predictability and stability to be essential for attracting investment.In particular, Parliament urged the Commission to place greater emphasis on industrialrenewal, competitiveness and sustainability, and to develop an ambitious, eco-efficient andgreen EU industrial strategy; —its resolution of 26 October 2011 on the Agenda for New Skills and Jobs [3]  underlinedthe importance of developing closer cooperation between research institutes and industryand encouraging and supporting investment by industrial companies in research anddevelopment. Parliament called for more investment in education, research and innovation,the promotion of centres of excellence and mobility among young people, and support for the development of conditions stimulating the growth of innovative enterprises; —its resolution of 19 January 2012 on a space strategy for the European Union that benefitsits citizens [4]  stressed the importance of a research and innovation strategy in the area of space policy which would ensure technological progress, industrial development and theUnion’s competitiveness and would create jobs in the EU; —its resolution of 15 January 2014 [5]  on reindustrialising Europe to promote competitivenessand sustainability evaluated the current situation of the industry in Europe and proposeda variety of measures to tackle the current challenges. This resolution supported a [1]OJ C 236 E, 12.8.2011, p. 57.[2]OJ C 199 E, 7.7.2012, p. 131.[3]OJ C 131 E, 8.5.2013, p. 87.[4]Texts adopted, P7_TA(2012)0013.[5]Texts adopted, P7_TA(2014)0032.  Fact Sheets on the European Union - 20174‘Renaissance of Industry for a Sustainable Europe’ (RISE) to pursue innovation towardsa new industrial revolution; —its resolution of 4 February 2014 [6]  on the Action Plan for a competitive and sustainablesteel industry in Europe stressed the important place of the steel industry in industrial valuechains such as those of the automotive and construction industries and mechanical andelectrical engineering. It also called for the preservation of a competitive European steel production ensuring economic growth and jobs in Europe. —its resolution of 9 June 2016 [7]  aimed at maintaining the competitiveness and the globalleadership of the European rail supply industry.Frédéric Gouardères12/2016 [6]Texts adopted, P7_TA(2014)0069.[7]Texts adopted, P8_TA(2016)0280.
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