Linis 2014-BiogeographyofBicolandCatanduanesmosses

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  119 Philippine Journal of Science 142: 119-133, Special IssueISSN 0031 - 7683Date Received: ?? ???????? 2013 Virgilio C. Linis Key Words: Biogeography, moss flora, Bicol Peninsula, Catanduanes Island, Kroeber’s % of similarity, floristic affinity, Sierra Madre Range, Cordillera Range, Palawan. Biogeographical Notes on the Moss Floras of Bicol Peninsula in Luzon and the Catanduanes Islands, The Philippines Philippine National Herbarium, Botany Division, NationalMuseum, Ermita 1000, Manila, Philippines Corresponding Author: jajdjfd  Substantial moss collections have been made in Bicol peninsula and neighbouring Catanduanes Island, which form a special focus in the southeastern part of Luzon, the Philippines’ largest island. Moss diversity in the study area has now increased to 124 genera and 292 species. As expected, the moss flora has a predominant Luzon character, wherein about 34 species (11.64%) are restricted to Luzon, while about 18 species (6.16%) are new to the study area. Three species:  Phyllodon lingulatus (Cardot) W. R. Buck,  Aerobryopsis leptosigmata (Müll. Hal. ex Broth. & Geh.) M. Fleisch., and Calyptothecium squarrosulum  Nog. & B. C. Tan are restricted to the study area, while one species,  Acroporium convolutum  (Bosch & Sande Lac.) M. Fleisch., previously reported for the Philippines but without a documented locality, is reported here with a locality information. Calymperes couguiense Besch.,  Leptotrichella sumatrana  (Dixon) Ochyra,  Papillidiopsis macrosticta  (Broth. & Paris) W. R. Buck & B. C. Tan,  Physcomitrium sphaericum (C. F. Ludw.) Fürnr., and  Sematophyllum phoeniceum  (Müll. Hal.) M. Fleisch. are new Philippine records. INTRODUCTION Bicol Peninsula, together with Catanduanes Island, lies in the southeastern part of Luzon Island in the Philippines  between 11° 30’ and 14° 20’ N and 122° 20’ and 124° 30’ E (Fig. 1). This territory spreads over an area of about 14,900 km 2  and from sea level to slightly over 2400 m in elevation. Much of the region is mountainous, dominated  by volcanoes and tablelands. The main topographic features of the region are Mayon Volcano and Mt. Isarog, the summits of which are 2460 m and 1966 m above sea levels, respectively (Encyclopedia Brittanica 2010). The region has not been spared from massive habitat destruction and forest fragmentation. Most of its low-lying areas have already been converted to agriculture and are characterized by a mosaic of rice fields, coffee, Manila hemp and coconut plantations, pastures and areas planted with a variety of crops surrounding houses. Towards moderate to high areas however, remaining forest fragments persist which include mostly old secondary lowland mixed dipterocarp forest and the lower and upper montane forests that still support remarkable biodiversity, including a rich bryophyte flora, such as mosses and hepatics. Nevertheless, given poor implementation of conservation interventions, these forest fragments in the region remain under threat.Interestingly, the earliest known bryophyte collection from the region was a liverwort taken by Prof. C. Presl from a leaf of a tree specimen collected from the southern end of  120 Figure 1 . Bicol Peninsula, together with Catanduanes Island, lies in the southeastern part of Luzon Island in the Philippines between 11° 30’ and 14° 20’ N and 122° 20’ and 124° 30’ E. the Bicol Peninsula (Sorsogon Province) which Lehman and Lindenberg described in 1833 as  Jungermannia  floccosa (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Schiffn. (= Cololejeunea  floccosa ; see Tan and Engel 1986) (Tan and Iwatsuki 1991). It was only at the start of 20 th  century during the  period of American occupation that mosses were first widely collected from this peninsula. V. F. Brotherus, in two of his series of publications (1918, 1926), for instance, reported several species of mosses from Catanduanes Island and several locations in Bicol Peninsula, collected mainly by M. Ramos. Later, E. B. Bartram (1939) described about 58 species of mosses in 38 genera and 22 families occurring in the region. In 1991, Tan and Iwatsuki published a new checklist of Philippine moss records increasing the number of moss taxa occurring in the region to 116 species in 54 genera and 25 families. Stratigraphy, Geology and Climate Geologists divided Bicol Peninsula and its outlying islands into two stratigraphic groupings, namely the Ancient Southeastern Luzon Arc and Recent Southeastern Luzon Arc (PHILVOCS 1988). The ancient arc consists mainly of non-volcanic material, such as ophiolitic complexes and metamorphosed rocks which are very much varied in composition. Considered post Jurassic (BMG 1982), the age of most of the old rocks in this arc is relatively  poorly known, though some authors reported the presence of metamorphosed rocks of Eocene age in the area (Geary et al. 1988; David 1994). In addition, the srcin of these rocks is still the subject of controversy with regards to the mechanism of their emplacement. However, Aurelio (1996) in his review of Dewey’s 1976 ophiolite formation included the processes of accretion, obduction and  jamming in collision areas as possible causes. Linis VC: Biogeographical notes on the moss oras of Bicol Peninsula in Luzon  Philippine Journal of ScienceVol. 142: Special Issue  121The recent arc, on the other hand, includes the Bicol Volcanic Arc Complex consisting of active and inactive volcanoes and volcanic centers that are disposed along a northwest trending belt in the Bicol Peninsula (BMG 1982). These volcanoes and volcanic centers are formed from the outpouring of lavas and other volcanic ejecta that were produced as a result of partial melting of the subducting slab of the Philippine Sea Plate along the Philippine Trench east of the peninsula. Volcanism in the arc could have commenced in the early Pliocene (MGB 2004) and continues to the present time. The climate in Bicol Peninsula and adjoining islands  belong to second and fourth types (Bicol Peninsula 2010). The second type, which prevails in Catanduanes Island and along the northeast, east and southern portions of Bicol Peninsula, is characterized by a very pronounced maximum rainfall (November-January) and has no dry season. The fourth type where seasons are not very  pronounced is prevalent along the western side of Bicol Peninsula. This climate type is relatively dry from  November to April and wet during the rest of the year. On the average, the region receives an annual rainfall of 3,013 mm with a normal average year-round temperature of 27.4°C to 29.6°C. METHODOLOGY Between 2004 and 2010, the author carried out several expeditions to Bicol Peninsula and Catanduanes Island to update information on the region’s moss diversity. During these expeditions, a substantial number of mosses was collected from different localities (Table 1) which resulted in the discovery of some species not yet reported in the region. Voucher specimens of the collections made by the author are deposited at the Philippine National Herbarium (PNH) in Manila. Published information dealing with Philippines mosses (Tan 1996, Tan & Mandia 2001, Linis 2009, Linis 2004), South East Asian mosses including Philippine specimens (See Akiyama & Suleiman 2001, Arts 2001, Eddy 1988, 1990, 1996, Ellis & Tan 1999, Enroth 1994, Hofmann 1998, Li 1985, Tan & Jia 1999, Tan and Robinson 1990, Yamaguchi 1993, Touw 2001), as well as the unpublished data from 2004 to 2010, were used by the author to assign each species recorded from Bicol Peninsula and Catanduanes Island to a specific distribution pattern within the Philippines (see Table 2). This updated information was used to compare and analyze the floristic affinity of mosses found in the Bicol Biogeographic Region with neighbouring biogeographic regions (Merill 1947, Tan 1996) in the Philippines. Kroeber’s index (% K = C (A+B) / AB x 100, where A = number of taxa in the first area, B = number of taxa in the second area, C = number of shared taxa) is used for computing the percentage of similarity between pairs of areas, both at the generic and species levels. DISCUSSION The diversity of mosses of Bicol Peninsula Only a handful scattered past publications included a brief mention of mosses from the Bicol peninsula (Bartram 1939, Tan & Iwatsuki 1991). Also, many of the early collections made in the peninsula came mainly from Mt. Bulusan, Mt. Mayon and Mt. Isarog. Many areas in the peninsula have received little or no bryological investigation so far. However, with new collections made in recent years, the author has been able to increase the total number of mosses known from Bicol from 116 species in 54 genera (Tan & Iwatsuki 1991) to 292 species in 124 genera (See Appendix A for the updated list of Bicol Peninsula mosses). Table 1 . List of collection localities in Bicol peninsula and Catanduanes Island. Locality No.Description 1Mixed agricultural and grassland near Brgy. Potot, Labo, Camarines Norte; alt. 276 – 387 ft; 14°12’ N, 122° 24’ E. 2 In secondary lowland forest along slope facing east of Mt. Cadig, Brgy. Tangkawayan, Quezon; alt. 685 – 1437 ft; 14°10’ N, 122° 25’ E. 3 Mixed agricultural land alongside road at Brgy. Malankaw, Bansid, Labo, Camarines Norte; alt. 537 ft.; 14°11’ N, 122° 39’ E. 4 In secondary lowland forest on slope facing west of Mt. Bacacay, Camarines Norte; alt. 750 - 1360 ft; 14°13’ N, 122° 48’ E. 5 Along edge of mangrove thicket near shoreline in Brgy. Aguit-it, Vinzon, Camarines Norte; alt. 2 m; 14°15’ N, 122° 53’ E. 6 Within mixed residual lowland forest and agricultural land in So. Kalantiaw, Brgy. Tulay na Lupa, Labo, Camarines Norte; alt. 650 – 1000 ft; 14°3’ N, 122° 47’ E. 7 In mixed residual lowland forest and agricultural land near Del Gallego, Quezon; alt. 105 m; 13°54’ N, 122° 39’ E. 8 In Lowland to montane forests along north facing slope of Mt. Labo, Camarines Norte; alt. 2270 – 3720 ft; 14°1’ N, 122° 47’ E. Table 1 continues next page Linis VC: Biogeographical notes on the moss oras of Bicol Peninsula in Luzon  Philippine Journal of ScienceVol. 142: Special Issue  1229 Alongside secondary riverine lowland forest close to a creek in Brgy. Lugui, Labo, Camarines Norte; alt. 270 – 360 ft; 14°6’ N, 122° 49’ E. 10 In secondary lowland forest northeast of Brgy. Lalawigan, Mercedes, Camarines Norte; alt. 156 m.; 13° 57’ N, 123° 3’ E. 11 Within mixed agricultural land and human settlement area near Lupi, Camarines Sur; alt. 90 m; 13° 48’ N, 122° 53’ E. 12 Scattered trees near shoreline in Pasacao, Camarines Sur; alt. 4 m; 13° 34’ N, 123° 4’ E 13 In man-made park within human settlement area of Naga City, Camarines Sur; alt. 40 ft; 13° 38’ N, 123° 15’ E. 14 On boulders along residual riverine lowland forest in Brgy. Olag Pequeno, Tinambac, Camarines Sur; alt. 69 m; 13° 49’ N, 123° 21’ E. 15 Mixed agricultural land in Brgy. Bataan, Tamban, Camarines Sur; alt. 85 m; 13° 52’ N, 123° 23’ E. 16 Open man-made park in Tamban, Camarines Sur; alt. 155 m; 14°55’ N, 128° 24’ E. 17 In thickets near agricultural land in Brgy. Himagtuhan, Lagonoy, Camarines Sur; alt. 18 m; 13° 46’ N, 123° 30’ E. 18 In lowland forest to mossy forest along south-facing slope of Mt. Isarog, Camarines Sur; alt. 290 – 1982 m; 13°38’ N, 123° 23’ E. 19 In ultra-basic lowland to montane forests of Mt. Potianay, Saddleback Mountain Range, Camarines Sur; alt. 128 – 500 m; 13°47’  N, 123° 29’ E. 20 In scattered trees along shoreline of Brgy. Sabang, San Jose, Camarines Sur; alt. 5 m; 13° 13’ N, 123° 35’ E. 21 Residual beach forest to secondary lowland forest near Presentacion, Camarines Sur; alt. 30 – 250 m; 13° 43’ N, 123° 42’ E. 22 Within secondary karst lowland forest near Caramon, Camarines Sur; alt. 110 – 170 m; 13° 49’ N, 123° 49’ E. 23 Residual lowland forest alongside road to Guijalo, Camarines Sur; alt. 120 m; 13°45’ N, 123° 52’ E. 24 Secondary lowland forest on south-facing slope of Mt. Iriga, Camarines Sur; 240 m; 13° 27’ N, 123° 29’ E. 25 On rocks and trees along shoreline of Lake Buhi, Camarines Sur; 90 m; 13° 26’ N, 123° 31’ E. 26 Residual karst forests and mixed agricultural land near Balatan, Camarines Sur; 18 – 111 m; 13° 17’ N, 123° 14’ E. 27 In secondary lowland forest along eastern slope of Mt. Malinao near Tiwi, Albay; alt. 22 m; 13° 28’ N, 123° 39’ E. 28 In mixed agricultural, secondary lowland and montane forests of Mt. Masaraga, Ligao, Albay; alt. 411 m; 13°17’ N, 123° 35’ E. 29 In mixed agricultural land and grassland area near Talisay, Duran, Albay; alt. 250 m; 13°7’ N, 123° 22’ E. 30 Secondary montane forests along north-facing slope of Mayon Volcano; alt. 359 – 1372 m; 13°17’ N, 123° 40’ E. 31 Tree-lined park within Bicol State University, Daraga, Albay; alt. 28 m; 13° 9’ N, 123° 43’ E. 32 In agricultural land near human settlement of Brgy. Santa Fe, Pilar, Sorsogon; alt. 10 m; 12° 55’ N, 123° 37’ E. 33 On limestones and trees of residual karst lowland forest in Brgy. Abas, Pilar, Sorsogon; alt. 27 m; 12° 37’ N, 123° 40’ E. 34 Open agricultural area with scattered trees in Brgy. San Vicente, Magallanes, Sorsogon; alt. 350 ft; 12° 58’ N, 123° 49’ E. 35 In secondary montane forest of Mt. Tanawon, Brgy. Rizal, Sorsogon; alt. 672 m; 13° 1’ N, 120° 35’ E. 36 Within secondary lowland to montane forests of Bulusan Volcano, Sorsogon; alt. 539 – 1220 m; 12 ° 42’ N, 124° 2’ E. 37 Mixed agricultural land in Bulan, Sorsogon; alt. 7 m; 12°40’ N, 123° 53’ E. 38 In secondary lowland forest surrounding Bulusan Lake in Brgy. San Roque, Bulusan, Sorsogon; alt. 183 – 300 m; 12° 44’ N, 124° 5’ E. 39 On rock cliff along residual beach forest near Bulusan town, Sorsogon; alt. 3 m; 12° 47’ N, 124° 7’ E. 40 Secondary lowland forest in Brgy. Tagas, Matnog, Sorsogon; alt. 72 m; 12° 42’ N, 124° 2’ E. 41 On old walls alongside road in Matnog, Sorsogon; alt. 2 m; 13° 35’ N, 124° 5’ E. 42 In planted trees near church, Viga, Catanduanes; alt. 11 m; 13° 34’ N, 124° 13’ E. 43 Secondary lowland forest near Brgy. Bislig, San Andres, Catanduanes; alt. 245 m; 13° 39’ N, 124° 5’ E. 44 In mixed agricultural land near Brgy. Obo, San Miguel, Catanduanes; alt. 7 m; 13° 40’ N, 124° 19’ E. 45 In secondary lowland forest of Mt. Buntahya, San Miguel, Catanduanes; alt. 183 m; 13°41’ N, 124° 20’ E. 46 Secondary lowland forests adjacent to a waterfall in Mt. Summit, Viga, Catanduanes; alt. 311 m; 13° 47’ N, 124° 20’ E. 47 In mixed agricultural land near Brgy. Tambognan, Viga, Catanduanes; alt. 3 – 107 m; 13° 54’ N, 124° 22’ E. 48 On trees and rocks in woody thickets along shoreline near Brgy. Teresa, Bagamanoc, Catanduanes; alt. 2 – 9 m; 13° 57’ N, 124° 17’ E. Linis VC: Biogeographical notes on the moss oras of Bicol Peninsula in Luzon  Philippine Journal of ScienceVol. 142: Special Issue
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