Tourism and Developing Country (Poland)

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How tourism works in Poland, a descriptive study about it
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    B.A International Hospitality & Tourism Management   ITM-IHM, NAVI MUMBAI   Tourism and Developing Countries   2014  –  2015   Module code - B-3141   Module co-coordinator - Ketan Chande   Matriculation Number -14010377   WORD COUNT  –  2,163     From over the past years competition became more intense among tourist destinations. Investments in infrastructure for tourism, growth of the new tourist destinations and products, introducing new tourism attractions are the characteristics elements of today’s tourism industry (Johann, 2014). Poland is not perceived as a typical tourist destination; according to Johann, due to the investments in tourist infrastructure, its cultural heritage and other changes related to the accession to the European Union, Poland has become the country which offers many opportunities for business and individual travelers. But, the perceptions of Poland as traditional and agricultural country, connotations with World War 2, concentration camps, and Eastern Block have an impact on the image of Poland as tourist destination. The change of the image and attracting more tourists requires much more effort put in the promotional activities adapted to the various markets. Poland is situated in the centre of European continent. Poland has various tourist attractions which includes sandy beaches, mountain ranges, and Carpathians tower etc. Poland became a special charm because of its beautiful forests, lakes, and rivers (Piotrowski and Solinski, 2010). Rura l and Agritourism is the main part of Poland’s inbound tourism. By the year of 2013, The Ministry of Economy started promoting medical tourism internationally with help of European Union. This promotional activity increases the inbound tourism for medical purpose. Reason behind selecting this country for writing an essay is, the country has various tourist attractions and from them many of are still developing to increase more inbound tourism. Poland faced the decreased number of tourist arrivals by 3% in 2013, although the Year 2012 was the fantastic year for Poland in terms of inbound tourism. Poland was co-host of the famous football event which known as UEFA EURO Champions League 2012. The year 2012 was comparatively best year among other years; because of the growth of inbound tourist arrival. It was increased by 11% of the football fans, who came to watch their favorite football players, teams, and to do support them. In year of 2013 there was no direct decline in the inbound tourism; it was just a coming back to normal level after a huge increase in tourist arrival because of UEFA Euro Champions League 2012 (msp.gov.pl, 2012). This economic crisis have made many losses for Poland, but the country was still set to make better trips and tourism for surrounding countries located in European continent. Because of the nearest country as well as shared border, Germany is the preferred location for inbound tourism arrival to Poland in all the seasons, which makes transportation relatively cheaper (Polish Press Agency, 2012). Poland is well known for various types of tourism. Rural tourism, and one of its core segments, which is  Agritourism, has become well established on the domestic tourist market (Strzembicki, 2002). Poland’s outbound tourism is market is not yet developed the maturity as compare to the other European Union Economies. The opportunities for outbound tourism have been grabbed upon by Poland’s citizens, as their economy has become more advanced. In the year of May 2004, Poland became a member of European Union; this step gave Poland a biggest lift to outbound travelling for Polish citizens, and the second most important advantage for Poland was, the foreign travel and tourism agencies and companies as well as the foreign countries airlines got access to polish markets. The new forth aviation brands have Polish low-cost carrier brought in the year of 2004; they offered Poles air travel at the low prices they not seen before. The regional airports which are central are making the air transport and traveling most reachable to polish population. The cheaper deals and package holidays are developed in between the year  of 2005-10, has attracted more polish to abroad. Mostly Polish first generation travelers are interested in mainstream sun and beach holidays. They generally have higher incomes and often travel in couples. Tourism is the world’s most favorable largest and most important industry. It is comparatively important for source of income in various regions, and for others it is an economic growth to develop their nation. In the developing countries rural areas are enlarging at rapidly and their major income came from the rural tourism only. The local developers and World Tourism Organization motivates to development of the tourism sector; others denounce this sector use as an implement for expansion in poor regions. Core-periphery framework is frequently used by critics to understand the huge leakages and external controls often outcome of the targeted area which remaining under growing in spite of large expenditure by tourists. In the tourism studies Chaos and Complexity theories were used many times, especially aspects and incident recognized for being chaotic. In this theory unexpected results and points to the impractical of long term forecast clarifications is provided. Various approaches have been given in different disciplinary fields, that’s why is tremendously tough to indentify one complexity theory (Medd 2001, and Mitleton-kelly, 1998).    According to Mckercher (1999),    A composite range of attractions are chaotic non stable and non linear are the characterizations of tourism. For tourism sector the indication is that they can materialize to progress in stable and foreseeable over the longer session of time, unless and until it activate initiates a period of chaotic disruption manner where in non linear relationships controls. In some parts of the tourism sectors knowledge is very much flourish but that there is a bit understanding of the relationship and attractions between these tourism sectors, is the rational approach and dominance of ‘Newtonian’ (Twining-Ward and Farrell 2004).  According to WTO, the definition for tourism sustainable development is, give a proper protection as well as make opportunities pertaining to the future demand and supply of tourist arrival. But also make sure to give proper value for money services to the present tourist. It is predicted as key to management of all the supply in such a part that aesthetic, social, and economical needs can be fulfilled at the time of maintaining life support systems, essential of ecological processes, cultural integrity, and biological diversity (Report of EC, 2009). The effects of sustainability in tourism can be considered from different points of view. The sustainability principles refers to the economical, socio-cultural, and environmental features and characteristics of the tourism development, and a manageable as well as acceptable balance is has to be established and followed in between those three different extent to assurance its long term sustainability (WTO, 2004). Poland is mainly known for its sports tourism, cultural heritage tourism wine tourism, and historical tourism which are related to world wars. Cultural tourism is the most developed type of tourism in Poland. The ministry of culture and National Heritage of Poland performs tasks related to the cultural heritage of the Operational Program Infrastructure and Environment, whose main objective is to increase the attractiveness of Poland through in culture to increase more and more inbound tourism and to also increase the carrying capacity of the country.   According to Mlynarczyk (2002), the environmental impacts both positive and negative of rural or cultural tourism are equal. This tourism is largely based and depended on attractive natural environment and landscapes. Tourism in rural areas is a generator of employment and additional income for rural families. Rural tourism encourages rational use of the available resources contributing to preservation of heritage and conservation of natural environment. The Polish people have changed their social life with economic benefits and they improved their standard life. They reduce out migration and they also facilitate transfer of new ideas from urban to rural areas and strengthen regional identity. As regards negative impacts, in the countryside area tourism changes use of arable lands, degrades the nature and implicates the harmony of rural landscape. It endangers the authenticity of local community traditions or customs and it also disturbs the rural family privacy. Sometimes it causes spread of pathological behaviors. These impacts are based on tourism activities as well as both good and bad impression which is maintain by tourists (Mlynarczyk, 2002). Rural tourism and agritourism are not totally new in Polish people. Rural tourism and agritourism develop in a space, which can be described as the rural tourism or agritourism space. The diversification of the economy of rural areas to other sectors than agriculture is progressing. It is extremely important, as because rural areas in Europe represent 92% of the territory and 56% of the population (Rural Development in the EU, 2006). According to Meyer (2008), tourist space is isolated according to the functionality criterion, and it is part of the economic space where tourism has developed (Plocka, 2009). Polish rural areas, especially in those which are attractive due to their natural and scenic values and rural tourism became a part of the country’s national pol icy to support rural families adjusting to changing resulting from economic restructuring (Roberts and Hall, 2001). According to the Central Statistical Office in 2011, the base of agritourism lodgings and guest rooms included 22.8 thousand entities with total of 309.1 thousand sleeping accommodations, including 7.8 thousand agritourism lodging with 82.7 thousand beds and 15.0 thousand guestrooms with 226.4 thousand beds in 2011-2012. According to the estimates made by the ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, in the year of 1993 there were about 100 agritourism farms available and by 2011 this numbers increased to 7,852 and it proves that agritourism is developing at a relatively rapid tempo in Poland (Statistical yearbook of Poland, 2011). From 25 th  October of 2013, all EU Members have been obliged to adopt the laws implementing Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and the Council of the 9 March 2011. The primary objective of this Directive is to ensure that EU member have the freedom to provide cross-border healthcare services and to establish rules for facilitating access to these services. Within a short period of time, Poland has become a major health destination. Poland’s healthcare has been experiencing growing interest from foreign patients. Tourist started going in Poland for many reasons and they also attracted by the high quality health services, state of the art clinics, medical technologies, highly qualified multilingual medical staff, short waiting times in private clinics, and also by the relatively low costs of procedures (Skowron and Sak-Skowron, 2014). While the Directive opens up new growth possibilities for Polish providers, it also generates a number of legislation, promotional, informational, and procedural challenges. Being aware of the opportunities offered by the medical tourism market, both health service providers and state institutes work on promoting awareness among foreign patients and insurers with
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